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Table 1 Effects of radiation treatment (Ambient, no filter; FUV+, UV-transmitting filter; FUV-, UV-blocking filter) and berry saccharimetric level on the phenolic composition of skins in Tempranillo berries

From: Solar ultraviolet radiation is necessary to enhance grapevine fruit ripening transcriptional and phenolic responses

Phenolic compounds 23 ºBrix Ambient 23 ºBrix FUV+ 23 ºBrix FUV- 26 ºBrix Ambient 26 ºBrix FUV+ 26 ºBrix FUV- P-rad P-s
MSPC 15.0 ± 2.0 15.8 ± 0.8 16.8 ± 0.9 15.6 ± 0.9 15.5 ± 0.7 15.1 ± 1.7 0.632 0.799
MIPC 9.4 ± 0.1 10.4 ± 0.5 11.8 ± 1.2 9.6 ± 0.7 8.2 ± 1.4 10.3 ± 2.3 0.031 0.587
Phenolic acids (μg · g -1 FW)
Protocatechuic acid 7.7 ± 0.3a 5.5 ± 0.2b 1.3 ± 0.3c 5.6 ± 0.0a 3.1 ± 0.4a 0.9 ± 0.1b 0.000 0.000
Caffeoyl-tartaric acid 69.7 ± 9.5 78.7 ± 34.3 115.1 ± 8.4 145.1 ± 22.7 117.7 ± 5.3 181.2 ± 14.8 0.063 0.015
Coumaroyl-tartaric acid 271.7 ± 24.6a 232.7 ± 19.5a 364.3 ± 26.4b 244.7 ± 20.2a 204.3 ± 25.2a 306.0 ± 35.4a 0.002 0.997
p-coumaric acid 111.4 ± 4.5a 87.4 ± 1.0ab 75.1 ± 4.5b 111.0 ± 0.8a 128.7 ± 14.6a 79.9 ± 8.1b 0.003 0.028
Syringic acid 26.1 ± 7.1 36.7 ± 12.7 61.8 ± 25.5 42.2 ± 8.7 62.2 ± 12.7 56.3 ± 2.2 0.253 0.236
Stilbenes (μg · g -1 FW)
Resveratrol 0.4 ± 0.0a 1.1 ± 0.0b 0.3 ± 0.1a 0.4 ± 0.2a 1.2 ± 0.0b 0.3 ± 0.2a 0.035 0.407
Trans-piceid (resveratrol-3-O-glucoside) 2.4 ± 0.5a 3.3 ± 0.2a 0.6 ± 0.2b 0.8 ± 0.4a 4.6 ± 0.7b 0.6 ± 0.3a 0.004 0.351
Flavanols (μg g -1 FW)
Catechin 48.3 ± 10.0 63.3 ± 5.3 54.6 ± 3.1 30.6 ± 3.3 34.1 ± 3.5 44.8 ± 6.9 0.165 0.001
Epicatechin 9.6 ± 1.3a 11.1 ± 0.5a 8.2 ± 0.6a 5.3 ± 0.4a 8.4 ± 1.0b 7.1 ± 0.3b 0.030 0.002
Cis-epigallocatechin 129.4 ± 10.6a 96.1 ± 4.1b 133.9 ± 11.5a 86.7 ± 2.6a 81.8 ± 4.7a 91.5 ± 5.6a 0.016 0.000
Trans-epigallocatechin 35.0 ± 3.0 27.1 ± 1.1 26.7 ± 0.5 24.6 ± 0.1 24.9 ± 2.1 27.0 ± 5.8 0.514 0.166
Procyanidin B1 138.6 ± 7.8 142.6 ± 5.2 145.2 ± 8.2 89.8 ± 0.2 88.9 ± 4.4 90.7 ± 5.8 0.851 0.000
Flavonols (μg · g -1 FW)
Myricetin 86.8 ± 1.1a 58.6 ± 2.6b 45.8 ± 0.3c 79.0 ± 8.7a 56.8 ± 1.2a 45.8 ± 7.5a 0.004 0.497
Myricetin-3-O-glucoside 581.3 ± 19.6 683.2 ± 28.1 496.4 ± 22.2 426.9 ± 12.9 590.7 ± 49.8 536.5 ± 16.9 0.443 0.663
Myricetin-3-O-glucuronide 16.0 ± 0.6a 38.5 ± 1.7b 32.9 ± 0.4b 19.1 ± 0.8a 39.6 ± 0.9b 40.6 ± 0.5b 0.001 0.281
Cis-kaempferol-3-O-glucoside 15.3 ± 1.5a 11.6 ± 1.4a 0.8 ± 0.1b 10.6 ± 2.3a 6.6 ± 0.2a 1.8 ± 0.2b 0.009 0.116
Trans-kaempferol-3-O-glucoside 74.3 ± 8.8a 57.7 ± 8.6a 2.2 ± 0.6b 49.7 ± 10.0a 27.9 ± 3.6a 6.1 ± 0.1b 0.000 0.007
Quercetin-3-O-glucoside 70.1 ± 3.3 70.0 ± 2.9 71.3 ± 12 68.4 ± 3.9 70.2 ± 1.1 69.6 ± 8.6 0.985 0.853
Quercetin-3-O-galactoside 34.0 ± 2.7a 25.6 ± 8.3a 2.5 ± 0.5b 34.5 ± 8.5a 19.2 ± 1.5ab 4.9 ± 2.8b 0.005 0.826
Quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside 181.2 ± 6.4a 173.0 ± 35.2a 19.0 ± 3.5b 158.9 ± 34.8a 101.0 ± 7.7a 14.5 ± 0.5b 0.000 0.097
Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide 176.2 ± 16.0a 143.5 ± 28.0a 46.3 ± 6.3b 212.9 ± 50.1a 119.3 ± 2.1ab 53.2 ± 9.0b 0.000 0.687
Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside 10.5 ± 0.6a 6.1 ± 1.7b 1.5 ± 0.4c 9.3 ± 0.8a 5.2 ± 0.9ab 2.8 ± 0.5b 0.000 0.722
Cis-isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside 95.7 ± 3.6a 79.2 ± 1.9b 98.2 ± 3.3a 76.0 ± 3.1a 85.3 ± 3.1a 91.8 ± 4.3a 0.012 0.033
Trans-isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside 9.2 ± 0.2a 11.8 ± 2.2a 2.2 ± 0.8b 8.9 ± 0.1a 9.0 ± 0.5a 1.8 ± 0.2b 0.002 0.258
Cis-isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide 0.8 ± 0.1a 0.8 ± 0.2a 0.4 ± 0.1b 0.7 ± 0.1a 0.7 ± 0.1a 0.3 ± 0.1b 0.001 0.864
Trans-isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide 4.1 ± 0.6a 3.0 ± 1.7a 1.1 ± 0.4b 3.8 ± 0.8a 3.5 ± 0.9a 1.0 ± 0.5b 0.016 0.365
Syringetin-3-O-glucoside 15.7 ± 1.5 13.2 ± 1.1 17.4 ± 2.2 14.1 ± 1.8 14.0 ± 1.6 16.4 ± 2.4 0.774 0.583
Anthocyanins (mg · g -1 FW)
Malvidin-3-O-glucoside 28.0 ± 3.9 28.5 ± 2.1 34.5 ± 2.0 31.8 ± 0.8 32.1 ± 2.1 32.1 ± 5.5 0.477 0.509
Petunidin-3-O-glucoside 12.5 ± 1.2 11.6 ± 1.1 12.8 ± 1.4 13.3 ± 0.3 12.4 ± 0.9 11.5 ± 1.4 0.655 0.902
Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside 11.2 ± 0.7 9.7 ± 1.0 10.4 ± 1.5 11.4 ± 0.3 10.4 ± 0.8 9.2 ± 1.0 0.237 0.912
Peonidin-3-O-glucoside 5.2 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.4 6.3 ± 0.7 5.5 ± 0.7 0.883 0.843
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside 2.9 ± 0.2 2.7 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 1.8 2.5 ± 0.3 3.0 ± 0.4 2.7 ± 0.9 0.922 0.729
Malvidin-3-O-(6´-acetyl) glucoside 4.9 ± 0.6 5.3 ± 0.4 5.3 ± 0.5 4.6 ± 0.2 4.4 ± 0.5 4.4 ± 1.0 0.983 0.113
Petunidin-3-O-(6´-acetyl) glucoside 0.2 ± 0.0a 0.2 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.0a 0.2 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.0b 0.001 0.001
Delphinidin-3-O-(6´-acetyl) glucoside 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.0 0.5 ± 0.0 0.5 ± 0.0 0.5 ± 0.0 0.5 ± 0.1 0.929 0.424
Peonidin-3-O-(6´-acetyl) glucoside 1.2 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.0 1.5 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.3 0.126 0.940
Cyanidin-3-O-(6´-acetyl) glucoside 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1 0.910 0.360
Malvidin-3-O-(6´-p-coumaroyl) glucoside 12.2 ± 1.8 14.6 ± 0.6 16.3 ± 1.7 12.1 ± 0.3 14.0 ± 0.8 14.3 ± 3.3 0.168 0.538
Petunidin-3-O-(6´-p-coumaroyl) glucoside 3.8 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.3 4.5 ± 0.4 3.9 ± 0.1 3.8 ± 0.3 4.0 ± 0.8 0.720 0.368
Delphinidin-3-O-(6´-p-coumaroyl) glucoside 0.2 ± 0.0a 0.2 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.0b 0.000 0.001
Cyanidin-3-O-(6´-p-coumaroyl) glucoside 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.0 0.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.0 0.586 0.196
  1. MSPC and MIPC, bulk levels of methanol-soluble and -insoluble phenolic compounds (as the area under the absorbance curve in the interval 280–400 nm of the absorbance spectrum per mg FW). All the individual compounds were found in the methanol-soluble fraction except p-coumaric and syringic acids. Different letters mean significant differences between treatments for each ripeness level. Means ± SE are shown. Significance values in ANOVA for the differences in radiation treatments and berry saccharimetric level are shown (P-rad and P-s, respectively).