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Table 1 Day and night Solidago altissima individual herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC; means ± standard error; untransformed data shown)

From: The volatile emission of Eurosta solidaginis primes herbivore-induced volatile production in Solidago altissima and does not directly deter insect feeding

  Daytime HIPV Nighttime HIPV
  Exposure treatment
  Eurosta Control   Eurosta Control  
Compounds in S. altissimaVOC blend Induced VOC (ng cm-2) ± SE Induced VOC (ng cm-2) ± SE t-statistic (P-value) Induced VOC (ng cm-2) ± SE Induced VOC (ng cm-2) ± SE t-statistic (P-value)
(Z)-3-hexen1ol 1.00 ± 0.03 0.32 ± 0.17 1.62 (0.12) 0.84 ± 0.22 0.04 ± 0.35 1.95 (0.07)
α-pinene 9.29 ± 2.8 2.79 ± 0.95 2.83 (0.01)* 3.76 ± 0.93 1.49 ± 0.62 2.76 (0.01)*
Camphene 0.56 ± 0.27 0.13 ± 0.08 1.78 (0.09) 0.11 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.04 -
β-pinene 4.45 ± 1.4 1.44 ± 0.49 2.73 (0.01)* 1.12 ± 0.36 0.44 ± 0.21 2.56 (0.02)*
Myrcene 7.42 ± 1.3 5.43 ± 1.7 2.03 (0.06) 1.68 ± 0.31 0.69 ± 0.24 2.88 (0.01)*
(Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate 5.43 ± 1.8 3.41 ± 1.4 - 5.53 ± 0.83 0.92 ± 0.83 1.63 (0.12)
Limonene 14.3 ± 2.9 8.76 ± 3.2 2.12 (0.05)* 3.31 ± 0.54 1.53 ± 0.54 2.65 (0.02)*
(E)-β-ocimene 0.66 ± 0.25 0.39 ± 0.33 - 0.11 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.04 -
Linalool 0.22 ± 0.05 0.20 ± 0.094 - 0.09 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.02 1.81 (0.09)
Nonatriene1 0.93 ± 0.27 0.98 ± 0.46 - 0.16 ± 0.05 0.11 ± 0.05 -
(Z)-3-hexenyl isobutyrate 0.07 ± 0.04 0.03 ± 0.018 - 0.09 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01 1.93 (0.07)
(Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate 0.07 ± 0.02 0.062 ± 0.023 - 0.03 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.01 -
(E)-2-hexenyl butyrate 0.09 ± 0.02 0.089 ± 0.036 - 0.04 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01 -
Bornyl acetate 0.89 ± 0.32 0.594 ± 0.33 1.74 (0.09) 0.03 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.06 2.2 (0.04)*
(Z)-jasmone 0.27 ± 0.14 0.224 ± 0.093 - 0.04 ± 0.03 -0.07 ± 0.03 2.1 (0.04)*
β-caryophyllene 0.84 ± 0.23 0.655 ± 0.24 - 0.28 ± 0.05 0.12 ± 0.05 2.1 (0.05)*
α-humulene 0.05 ± 0.02 0.006 ± 0.038 - 0.03 ± 0.01 -0.03 ± 0.01 2.9 (0.009)*
β-farnescene 0.27 ± 0.07 0.238 ± 0.084 - 0.09 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01 2.6 (0.02)*
GermacreneD 4.65 ± 1.0 3.37 ± 1.1 - 1.35 ± 0.20 0.46 ± 0.20 2.4 (0.03)*
α-farnescene 0.26 ± 0.09 0.349 ± 0.17 - 0.10 +/0.02 0.06 ± 0.03 -
Nerolidol 0.03 ± 0.02 0.10 ± 0.083 - 0.01 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.01 -
Tridecatetraene 0.02 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.045 - 0.008 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 -
Indole 0.05 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.03 - 0.04 ± 0.02 0.008 ± 0.004 -
  1. 1(3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene.
  2. Within daytime and nighttime collections, asterisks (*) indicate statistical comparisons (t-tests) of volatile constituents that were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05; data shown are untransformed, but statistical analyses were performed on square-root transformed data) between plants that were exposed to the E. solidaginis emission and untreated control plants. Dashes (−) indicate overlapping standard errors so no t-tests were conducted. All compounds detected and identified in the S. altissima volatile blend are included here.