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Table 1 Phenotypic differentiation between upland and irrigated rice

From: A genomic perspective on the important genetic mechanisms of upland adaptation of rice

Environment Phenotypes* Irrigated rice Upland rice P-value Mean difference
Between ecotypes/percentage      
Irrigated environment Plant height (cm) 89.5 ± 16.0 116.1 ± 22.1 6.5e-12 26.6/29.7%
  Tillering number 9.8 ± 3.1 8.7 ± 2.7 0.042 1.1/11.2%
  Root weight (g) 12.8 ± 5.7 17.2 ± 7.1 0.00029 4.4 /34.4%
  Maximal main root length (cm) 24.1 ± 2.5 27.2 ± 4.1 2.0e-06 3.1/12.9%
  Thousand grain weight (g) 23.8 ± 2.9 25.9 ± 4.3 0.0020 2.1/8.8%
  Number of productive panicles@ 11.0 ± 3.1 9.6 ± 2.7 0.015 1.4/12.7%
  Number of filled grain per panicle 124.2 ± 27.6 129.8 ± 35.3 0.33 5.6/4.5%
  Number of empty grain per panicle 31.0 ± 21.1 31.4 ± 15.4 0.91 0.4/1.3%
Upland environment Plant height (cm) 81.2 ± 12.6 103.9 ± 15.4 7.3e-16 22.7/28.0%
  Tillering number (∆ number of productive panicles) 1.5 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.5 0.024 0.2/13.3%
  Root weight (g) 1.8 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 1.0 0.00031 0.6/33.3%
  Maximal main root length (cm) 23.5 ± 4.0 29.9 ± 6.1 6.9e-11 6.4/27.2%
  Thousand grain weight (g) 23.4 ± 4.7 25.6 ± 4.4 0.0071 2.2/9.4%
  Number of filled grain per panicle 33.3 ± 16.6 40.5 ± 16.9 0.016 7.2/21.6%
  Number of empty grain per panicle 26.3 ± 10.1 18.9 ± 9.8 5.3e-05 7.4/28.1%
Mean differences between environments # Plant height (cm)/percentage -8.3/-9.3% -12.2/-10.5%   
  Tillering number/percentage -8.3/84.7% -7.4/-85.1%   
    -14.8/-86.0%   
  Root weight (g)/percentage   +2.7/+9.9%   
   -11.0/-85.9%    
  Maximal main root length (cm)/percentage     
   -0.6/-2.5%    
  Thousand grain weight -0.4/-1.7% -0.3/-1.2%   
  Number of productive panicles -9.5/-86.4% -7.41/-85.0%   
  Number of filled grain per panicle -90.9/-73.2% -89.3/-68.8%   
  Number of empty grain per panicle -4.7/-15.2% -12.5/-39.8%   
  1. *Phenotypic value is indicated by mean value ± standard deviation.
  2. #The difference is positive when the phenotypic value in the upland environment is larger than in the irrigated environment, otherwise the difference is negative.
  3. @The number of productive panicles were measured at the stage of maturity, while tiller number was assessed before the earing period. Since different accessions have different heading dates, some accessions produce more tillers after we measured the tiller numbers. So the final mean numbers of productive panicles were larger than the mean tiller numbers in the irrigated condition.
  4. ∆ In the upland environment, most of the accessions have less than two tillers. When we phenotyped the number of productive panicles, we found almost all the tillers develop productive panicles, i.e. the percentage of earbearing tiller is close to 100% in the rainfed upland condition. So here in the upland environment, tiller numbers and productive panicle numbers share the same values. The tillering ability is weak in our upland condition, and no more tillers were produced at the stage of maturity.
  5. We focus on four non-yield phenotypes in this study, including plant height, tillering number, root weight and maximal main root length, and four yield phenotypes, including thousand grain weight, number of productive panicles, number of filled grain per panicle and number of empty grain per panicle. These phenotypic data were collected under both irrigated and upland environments.
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