Stress tolerance of 35S: BdCBF1 transgenic Brachypodium plants. The BdCBF1 cDNA was transformed into Brachypodium Bd21-3 ecotype under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Six-week-old plants grown in soil were exposed to either cold (4°C for 6 days), drought (for 9 days without watering), or high salinity (300 mM for 3 days) conditions and allowed to recover by growing under normal growth conditions for 15 days before taking photographs. A. Cold stress tolerance. B. Drought stress tolerance. C. Salt stress tolerance. D. Electrolyte leakage assays. Two-week-old Brachypodim plants were exposed to either freezing (-6°C) for 3 h or high salinity (300 mM NaCl) for 6 h. Rosette leaves were used for the measurements of electrolyte leakage. Five measurements were averaged and statistically treated using the Student t-test (*P < 0.01). Bars indicate standard error of the mean.