Expression analysis of key PA biosynthesis genes, and PA composition in various tissues of Theobroma cacao . A, Gene expression levels of TcANR, TcLAR1 and TcLAR1. Expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR normalized relative to the expression of TcActin in each sample. B, Levels of soluble PAs expressed as mg PA per g of dry weight. C, Levels of insoluble PAs expressed as mg PA per g of dry weight. D, Catechin and epicatechin standards analyzed by HPLC. E, Representative HPLC analysis of flavan-3-ols extracted from cacao leaves. F, Flavan-3-ol accumulation and composition analyzed by HPLC. All data are presented as means ± SE, for gene expression data, n ≥ 3, for PA level data, n ≥ 5. DW, dry weight.