The effect of SMS on the permeability of A. thaliana Col0 leaves. (A) Permeability of the cuticle measured by chlorophyll leaching in SMS-treated leaves compared to controls (n = 3; ±SD); the experiment was carried out 2 times, one typical result is represented. (B) Droplets of toluidine blue were placed on the both sides of leaf surface for 2 h in high humidity then the leaf surface was rinsed with water. The blue stain that remains attached to the cell wall is indicative of a permeable cuticle. The percentage of droplets stained in blue relative to the total inoculated droplets was calculated (n = 3; 90 droplets per experiment; ±SD). Two representative pictures of leaves stained with toluidine blue were placed above each histogram as a visual illustration. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between SMS-treated and non-treated Col0 leaves, T-Test (p < 0,01). (C) leaves were bleached overnight in ethanol then stained with Calcofluor white that binds to cellulose, and viewed under UV light. Calcofluor staining to the leaf is indicative of a permeable cuticle (the experiment was carried out 3 times, one typical result is represented).