Spectroscopic analysis of cellulose crystallinity. (A) X-ray powder diffraction profiles. (B) Crystallinity index derived from the diffraction profiles using the amorphous cellulose subtraction method. (C) Sum-frequency-generation vibration spectra. (D) Cellulose crystallinity derived from the spectra based on comparison to Avicel. Eight to twelve individuals from three independent lines were analyzed for each transgene. Box plots and significance are as described for figure 5.