A. Diagram of the DNA constructs used for transformation. Gladiolus GUBQ1 promoter (G1-1) and an intronless version (G1-3). TS, transcription start; E, 5′UTR-exon; 5′U-I, 5′UTR intron; 35 S, CaMV 35 S promoter. Negative numbers represent the nucleotides on the 5′ side of the translation start codon. For Gladiolus transformation pUC-GUS was used as the backbone vector, pCAMBIA1391Z for Arabidopsis transformation, and pBI121-GFP for transient transformation of tobacco. B. Relative fold increase in the specific GUS activity for leaves from Arabidopsis (white bars) and Gladiolus plants (shaded bars) transformed with either the CaMV 35 S, G1-1, or G1-3 constructs. Three independently transformed lines were used for each of the constructs analyzed for GUS expression. Standard error shown.