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Table 1 Carotenoid contents of Arabidopsis grown indoors under low light (LL), normal light (NL) and high light (HL) conditions, and in the field

From: Arabidopsisplants grown in the field and climate chambers significantly differ in leaf morphology and photosystem components

Pigment LL NL HL Field
Neoxanthin 1.4 ± 0.3b 1.0 ± 0.2a 1.1 ± 0.1a 1.5 ± 0.1b
Violaxanthin 1.4 ± 0.2a 1.6 ± 0.1b 2.5 ± 0.1c 8.5 ± 0.2d
Anthraxanthin 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0.24 ± 0.1a 1.4 ± 0.1b
Zeaxanthin 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 1.3 ± 0.1a
VAZ 1.4 ± 0.1a 1.6 ± 0.1b 2.74 ± 0.1c 11.2 ± 0.1d
DES 0 0 0.043a 0.18b
Lutein 13.5 ± 0.9b 12.4 ± 0.4a 15.3 ± 0.1c 28.1 ± 0.2d
beta-carotene 2.3 ± 0.2c 2.4 ± 0.1b 1.4 ± 0.1a 1.4 ± 0.1a
  1. Values are percentages of total chlorophyll. Data presented as means ± SD (n = 3). Different lower case letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.001), according to separate Duncan's new multiple range tests followed by contrast analysis (indoor vs. field plants) applied to data presented in each column.