Sporophyte production 30 weeks after transplantation, for all focal genotypes in each of the two treatments. Black bars = I, isolated gametophytes (intragametophytic selfing); grey bars = II, among-population crossing (and intragametophytic selfing). Different panels show different species: a) Asplenium scolopendrium, b) Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens, c) Polystichum setiferum, d) Polystichum aculeatum. For clarity a vertical line separates Kuinderbos genotypes (to the left, see Table 1 for codes of genotypes) and mainland genotypes (to the right).