We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.
Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact us so we can address the problem.
Auxin as a player in the biocontrol of Fusarium head blight disease of barley and its potential as a disease control agent
- Carloalberto Petti†1, 2Email author,
- Kathrin Reiber†1,
- Shahin S Ali1,
- Margaret Berney1 and
- Fiona M Doohan3
© Petti et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 10 July 2012
- Accepted: 29 October 2012
- Published: 22 November 2012
Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens –mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of barley and to determine if biocontrol-associated hormones directly affect disease development.
A previous study distinguished bacterium-responsive genes from bacterium-primed genes, distinguished by the fact that the latter are only up-regulated when both P. fluorescens and the pathogen Fusarium culmorum are present. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences available for a subset of the bacterium-primed genes identified several hormones, including IAA and ABA as potential regulators of transcription. Treatment with the bacterium or pathogen resulted in increased IAA and ABA levels in head tissue; both microbes had additive effects on the accumulation of IAA but not of ABA. The microbe-induced accumulation of ABA preceded that of IAA. Gene expression analysis showed that both hormones up-regulated the accumulation of bacterium-primed genes. But IAA, more than ABA up-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthesis gene NCED or the signalling gene Pi2, both of which were previously shown to be bacterium-responsive rather than primed. Application of IAA, but not of ABA reduced both disease severity and yield loss caused by F. culmorum, but neither hormone affect in vitro fungal growth.
Both IAA and ABA are involved in the P. fluorescens-mediated control of FHB disease of barley. Gene expression studies also support the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in the primed response to F. culmorum. This hypothesis was validated by the fact that pre-application of IAA reduced both symptoms and yield loss asssociated with the disease. This is the first evidence that IAA plays a role in the control of FHB disease and in the bacterial priming of host defences.
- Pseudomonas fluorescens
- Fusarium head blight
Biological control bacteria regulate the capacity of plants to resist pathogen attack through diverse mechanisms [1–6]. Recently, Zhang et al. (2011) showed that bacteria-responsive plant microRNAs regulate plant innate immunity by modulating the plant hormone network . Phytohormones are key determinants of a plants’ ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress (reviewed by ). They are the effector molecules responsible for signal perception/transduction, cellular homeostasis and gene expression. As a consequence, they play an important role in plant responses to, and resistance against, disease.
Hormones and hormone-synthetic analogs have been used to prime plants such that they are prepared to mount defence responses against various pathogens. The induced systemic resistance (ISR) pathway is stimulated during necrotrophic bacterial attack and is primed by biocontrol species such as Pseudomonas to protect the plant from pending attack, possibly by increasing the plants susceptibility to the ISR-regulating hormone jasmonic acid (JA) . The priming of the ISR response is linked to JA and ethylene (ET), yet significant accumulation of these hormones has not been reported in ISR-expressing plants . Bacterium-mediated ISR is not dependent upon the induction of the defence hormone salicylic acid (SA), at least for the rhizobacterium strain P. fluorescens WCS417r [10, 11]. Application of the auxin β-aminobutyric acid resulted in induced resistance to Alternaria brassicola and priming for callose deposition and resistance . Priming of callose deposition was dependent on the classical plant defence hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Other hormones such as the the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins and brassinosteroids modulate host defence responses , but have not yet been specifically linked to defence priming.
A number of P. fluorescens strains have already been reported to prime plants by initiating defence responses to subsequent pathogen attacks . P. fluorescens strain MKB158 had the ability to induce local and systemic responses in wheat and barley tissue, resulting in enhanced resistance to Fusarium seedling blight and head blight (FSB and FHB) disease [14–17]. The objective of this study was to determine what hormones are involved in the defence responses to FHB in barley that are primed by the bacterium P. fluorescens strain MKB158. Based on in silico analysis of the upstream regions of genes involved in the primed response  we chose to determine whether the hormones ABA and IAA play a role in the biocontrol of FHB disease by P. fluorescens. Based on the assessment of both hormone levels and their effect on both the regulation of plant genes activated by the biocontrol bacterium and the development of FHB disease symptoms, we draw conclusions regarding the contribution of IAA and ABA to the local defence responses of barley plants primed by P. fluorescens. Furthermore, we highlight the potential of IAA as a treatment for the control of FHB disease.
ABA- and GA-responsive elements are highly represented in potentiated genes
We previously identified 86 barley genes that were primed by P. fluorescens to respond to F. culmorum. Barley genome sequence was available for 39 (45%) of these genes (see Additional file 1: Table S1). In silico analysis of upstream promoter regions indicated that 38 of these contained hormone-responsive elements (Additional file 1: Table S1). ABA- and GA-responsive elements were detected in all of these upstream regions, ABA being most commonly detected (between 1–12 ABA-responsive elements per upstream region analysed) (Additional file 1: Table S1). Elements responsive to the hormones AUX/IAA and SA were also frequent, being detected in 64 and 56% of putative promoter regions, respectively. JA-responsive elements were identified within the upstream region of a histone H4 gene and genes involved in defence - glutathiones, peroxidases, MLA12 and PDR-type ABC transporters.
ABA and IAA levels are modulated by both the biocontrol agent and the pathogen
Similar to ABA, IAA was produced in response to both P. fluorescens and F. culmorum as early as 4 h post-pathogen treatment. Unlike ABA, additive effects of the bacterium and fungus on hormone accumulation could account for the levels of IAA detected in plants treated with both agents at 24 h; at 12 h effects were at least additive and potentially synergistic (Figure 1b). By 12 h post-Fusarium inoculation, IAA production levels were 2.8-fold higher in bacterium as compared to control samples and 1.3-fold greater than the fungus samples (P<0.05). But IAA levels were 5.8-fold higher in plants treated with both bacterium and fungus as compared to control plants (P<0.05). Similar results were observed at 24 h post-fungal inoculation. But, by 48 h post-fungal inoculation, IAA levels were similar across all treatments (P>0.05) (Figure 1b).
Bacterium-potentiated genes are up-regulated in response to both IAA and ABA
Exogenous application of IAA reduces FHB disease in barley
No evidence that IAA and ABA directly inhibit fungal growth in vitro
An in vitro plate assay was conducted in order to assess the effect of hormone supplementation on PDA on the growth of F. culmorum strain FCF200 (at 72 h post-inoculation). Irrespective of the hormone concetration used, neither IAA nor ABA significantly affected the growth of the fungus, relative to control plates (Additional file 2: Figure S1).
The importance of the hormones IAA and ABA as effectors molecules involved in the regulation of a variety of plant physiological mechanisms is well reported (reviewed in . Moreover, an increasing body of evidence implicates a dualistic role of these hormones in plant defences and sensitivity to pathogens [21–26]. However, very little is known regarding their modulation by biocontrol agents. Herein we show that a biocontrol pseudomonad modulates IAA and ABA levels, that IAA and ABA either directly or indirectly influence the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the response of the barley plants to these microbes, and that IAA can reduce the severity of FHB disease. The promoters of many of the bacterium-potentiated genes also possessed both SA and JA-responsive elements in addition to those responsive to ABA and IAA. While JA plays a key role in ISR, SA is classically a SAR-associated hormone . The SA response is generally concomitant with down-regulation of IAA [28, 29] the most abundant SA-responsive element within the promoters of bacterium-potentiated genes was TGACG, and this element is also responsive to IAA, biotic and abiotic stimuli [30, 31]. This motif is present in the A. thaliana NPR1 gene promoter , the product of which regulates both ISR (SA-independent) and SAR responses .
Auxin production was part of the response primed by P. fluorescens to respond to Fusarium infection and IAA reduced the severity of disease symptoms and associated yield loss when applied 24 h pre-pathogen. The increases in IAA observed herein in biocontrol plus pathogen treated tissue precede disease spread and thus are part of an early priming cascade activated in response to plant-pathogen contact. We found no evidence that either IAA or ABA inhibited fungal growth on PDA. P. fluorescens strain MKB158 has the capacity to produce auxin , as do Fusarium fungi . Based on the literature [36–38], it is very possible that the IAA is derived from the bacterium and/or pathogen rather than the plant; the application of IAA might trick the plant into thinking it is being attacked by the pathogen, thus priming the defences responses such that they are activated to respond rapidly to the pathogen and thus increase plant FHB resistance. Fusarium culmorum displays a hemibiotrophic lifestyle  and there is evidence that auxin signalling enhances resistance to necrotrophs but susceptibility to biotrophs [40–42]. Noticeably, a recent report  highlights how auxin application was able to reverse hypersensitive response programmed cell death in tobacco initiated by a Erwinia amylovora type III elicitor harpin . In a recent metabolomics study reports by Kumaraswamy et al. (2012), F. graminearum induced the accumulation of IAA in barley .
Most evidence points to ABA playing a negative role in plant disease resistance, although there are exceptions, particularly for necrotrophic pathogens (reviewed by Cao et al. ). But, it has a negative effect on some necrotrophs and therefore the role of ABA in the host response in not solely determined by the pathogen lifestyle. The predominance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream region of primed genes, the previous association between ABA and primed biocontrol responses , its association with diverse pathogen resistances  and the increased ABA levels in bacterium and pathogen treated plants all provide “circumstantial” evidence that this hormone might play a role in the interplay between Fusarium and barley. Furthermore, there is evidence for a link between ABA and FHB resistance: callose deposition and repression of ethylene signalling are associated with ABA  and also with resistance to Fusarium spread in wheat spikelets [48–50]. Both the biocontrol agent and pathogen induced the accumulation of similar levels of ABA, indicating that any quantitative effects of this hormone on biotic responses are general rather than organism-specific. ABA itself did not reduce the severity of FHB. IAA activates the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene NCED, as found by us and others . Thus it is conceivable that application of IAA activates ABA-associated defences, but the converse does not occur; this warrants investigation. It could also be that the timing of application of ABA and the activation associated defence cascades were not optimal for disease control.
Defence responses are finely modulated by multiple hormones and herein we report of how the application of a biocontrol bacteria activated the in planta biosynthesis of two fundamental hormones, ABA and IAA. Studies that focus on the effect of specific components of IAA biosynthesis, homeostasis and turnover on defence priming will greatly enhance our understanding of how biocontrol pseudomonads can be used more effectively to control plant diseases. This study has identified IAA as a method for controlling FHB disease. Other studies have shown that IAA can reduce the severity of Fusarium seedling blight disease of wheat and barley (Khan et al., unpubl. data). Interestingly, it has been associated with systemic acquired immunity  and it has protective effects against apple scab caused by the necrotroph Botrytis cineria when applied pre- but not when applied post-pathogen . IAA might offer a realistic treatment for the control of diseases such as FHB where crops have a limited and clearly defined infection (mid-anthesis for FHB). Thus the effect of IAA on mycotoxin accumulation in grain and on other agronomic parameters are worthy of investigation.
Maintenance and culture of microorganisms
The biocontrol bacterium used in this study was Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MKB158; this bacterium was chosen because of its ability to control FSB and FHB diseases of wheat and barley and to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the grain [14, 15]. Culture conditions and inoculum preparation were as described in . The phytopathogenic Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Smith) Sacc. strain FCF 200 (kindly supplied by Dr. Paul Nicholson, John Innes Center, Norwich, UK) was grown at 24°C on PDA plates. The maintenance of F. culmorum and the production of conidial inoculum (105 conidia ml-1 0.2% Tween20) were as described earlier .
In silicoanalysis of gene promoters
We previously identified genes that were primed by P. fluorescens to respond to attack by F. culmorum. These were discriminated as transcripts differentially regulated only when both agents, i.e. the biocontrol bacterium and the pathogen, are present and are herein and after referred throughout the manuscript to as potentiated (see Additional file 1: Table S1 in ). The probe sequence corresponding to the potentiated genes was retrieved from the plant expression database (http://www.Plexdb.com). Additionally, BLAST analysis using the probe sequence identified homologous transcript assemblies (TAs) within the TIGR website (http://blast.jcvi.org/euk-blast/plantta_blast.cgi) (specified for the Liliopsida). Genomic sequences were identified based on BLAST analysis against the high throughput genomic sequences (HTGS) and the genomic survey sequences (GSS). The open reading frames were identified (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gorf/orfig.cgi) and thus the upstream 5’-sequences were deduced. Upstream regions (average length of 1kb) were scanned for cis-acting elements which were associated with hormone induction, modulation or responsiveness using the Plant-Cis-Acting-Elements (PLACE) software (http://www.dna.affrc.go.jp/PLACE/signalscan.html) [54, 55].
Fusarium head blight experiments
The two-row spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar (cv.) Lux was used in this study (kindly supplied by Powerseeds, Kildare, Ireland). This cultivar is susceptible to FHB . All head blight experiments were conducted in a non-climate controlled glasshouse and plants were grown to mid-anthesis at which point heads were treated. In all experiments heads were covered with a polythene bag immediately after fungal/Tween20 treatment and plants were arranged in a randomised block design.
For experiments that analysed the effect of P. fluorescens on the accumulation of ABA and IAA in F. culmorum-infected heads, heads (two per plant) were treated with either bacterium, sterile water (controls), and 24 h later with either Tween20 or F. culmorum, all as previously described . Each treatment combination was applied to 10 plants (2 heads per plant) per harvest time point and this experiment was conducted twice between May and August 2008. For experiments that investigated the effect of hormones on gene expression, plants were grown as above and, at mid-anthesis, heads (two per plant) were sprayed to runoff with either indole acetic acid (IAA), absciscic acid (ABA), (Sigma, UK) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 10 μgml-1) or DMSO (10 μgml-1) alone. Twenty-four hours post-hormone applications, the same heads were treated with either Tween20 or F. culmorum, all as previously described by . Each treatment combination was applied to four plants (2 heads per plant) per harvest time point and this experiment was conducted twice between May and August 2009. Heads were harvested at either 4, 12, 24 or 48 h post-fungal application, freeze-dried and stored at -70°C. Freeze-dried plant material was ground to a fine powder (the two heads harvested per plant were bulked) using a mortar and pestle and liquid nitrogen prior to either RNA or hormone extraction.
For experiments that investigated the effect of hormones on disease development, cv. Lux plants were grown and treated with either ABA or IAA and either pathogen or Tween 20 as above. Each treatment combination was applied to sixteen plants (2 heads per plant) and this experiment was conducted twice between Dec and June 2012. Disease was scored as the percentage of spikelets per head showing premature bleaching at growth stage (GS) 80 (start of dough development), as previously described . At GS 90, heads were harvested, freeze-dried, and the 1000 grain weight was determined on per head basis.
In vitroplate assay
Potato dextrose agar (PDA) was amended with either IAA or ABA (Sigma, UK). Hormones were dissolved in DMSO and added at a final concentration of either 0, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 μg ml-1 PDA, DMSO concentration in all plates was adjusted to 1% wv-1. Plates were inoculated with 5 mm diameter plug of F. culmorun strain FCF200, which was harvested from a seven-day-old PDA plate. Plates were incubated at 25°C. After 72 h, the diameter of the colony (in cm) was measured. The experiment was carried out twice, each containing three technical replicate per treatmeant.
Hormone extracts were prepared from 250mg plant material using the protocol described by Dobrev et al.,[56, 57]. Indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA) using the Olchemim C1 kits (Olchemim, Olomouc, Czech Republic). The procedure was conducted according to the manufacturer instructions, except that the incubation time was increased to 60 min. Each ELISA analysis included IAA or ABA standards (From 3.9 to 0.061 pmol) (Olchemim, Olomouc, Czech Republic). Using the OD (405 nm) absorbance values, hormone concentrations were extrapolated from a standard curve that related the absorbance to concentration of either the IAA or ABA standard.
RNA extraction and semi-quantitative real time PCR
RNA was extracted from 200mg of plant material according to a modified hot-phenol procedure . RNA was DNase-treated and quality was checked as previously described . Real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to analyse the temporal expression of a selected subset of transcripts from the microarray studies completed previously . Genes analysed were: a putative non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP), a tonoplast aquaporin (TIP3:1), a subtilisin-chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI-1B), a zinc methallothionin-like protein (ZnMT), a serpin Z4 (Paz1), a nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and a signalling cascade protein (Pi2). The housekeeping gene used for normalisation of RT-PCR data was α-tubulin (GenBank accession no. AJ132399.1); real-time RT-PCR analysis validated its constitutive expression (irrespective of treatment; results not shown). Real-time quantification of target transcripts and of the housekeeping gene was performed in separate reactions. Primers and PCR conditions were previously described . The threshold cycle (CT) values obtained by real-time RT-PCR were used to calculate the accumulation of target (relative mRNA accumulation), relative to α-tubulin transcript, with the formula 2 -(CT target transcript – CT α-tubulin).
Statistical analysis of the real-time RT-PCR and the hormone data was performed using Minitab 16 (Minitab Inc., State College, Pennsylvania, USA). Data were tested for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney Rank sum tests. Normally distributed data was analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) incorporating Tukey’s pairwise comparison (5% level of significance).
This work was funded by the Irish Department of Agriculture Research Stimulus Fund RSF 06 377 and Science Foundation Ireland principal investigator project 10/IN.1/B3028.
- Compant S, Duffy B, Nowak J, Clement C, Ait Barka E: Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action and future prospects. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005, 71 (9): 4951-4959. 10.1128/AEM.71.9.4951-4959.2005.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haas D, Blumer C, Keel C: Biocontrol ability of fluorescent pseudomonads genetically dissected: importance of positive feedback regulation. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2000, 11 (3): 290-297. 10.1016/S0958-1669(00)00098-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pieterse CMJ, Van Pelt JA, Ton J, Parchmann S, Mueller MJ, Buchala AJ, Metraux JP, Van Loon LC: Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis requires sensitivity to jasmonate and ethylene but is not accompanied by an increase in their production. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 2000, 57 (3): 123-134. 10.1006/pmpp.2000.0291.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Wees SCM, Luijendijk M, Smoorenburg I, Van Loon L, Pieterse CM: Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis is not associated with a direct effect on gene expression of known defence-related genes but stimulates the expression of jasmonate-inducible gene atvsp upon challenge. Plant Mol Biol. 1999, 41: 537-549. 10.1023/A:1006319216982.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van der Ent S, Van Hulten M, Pozo MJ, Czechowski T, Udvardi MK, Pieterse CM, Ton J: Priming of plant innate immunity by rhizobacteria and β-aminobutyric acid: differences and similarities in regulation. New Phytol. 2009, 183: 419-431. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02851.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zehnder GW, Murphy JE, Sikora EJ, Kloepper JW: Application of rhizobacteria for induced resistance. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2001, 107: 39-50. 10.1023/A:1008732400383.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang W, Gao S, Zhou X, Chellappan P, Chen Z, Zhou X, Zhang X, Fromuth N, Coutino G, Coffey M, Jin H: Bacteria-responsive microRNAs regulate plant innate immunity by modulating plant hormone networks. Plant Mol Biol. 2011, 75: 93-105. 10.1007/s11103-010-9710-8.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bari R, Jones JD: Role of plant hormones in plant defence responses. Plant Mol Biol. 2009, 69: 473-88. 10.1007/s11103-008-9435-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Conrath U, Pieterse CMJ, Mauch-Mani B: Priming in plant-pathogen interactions. Trends Plant Sci. 2002, 7: 210-216. 10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02244-6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Loon L: Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2007, 119: 243-254. 10.1007/s10658-007-9165-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Vleesschauwer D, Höfte M: Chapter 6 Rhizobacteria-Induced Systemic Resistance. Advances in Botanical Research. 2009, USA: Publisher Academic Press, 223-281.Google Scholar
- Ton J, Mauch-Mani B: ß-amino-butyric acid-induced resistance against necrotrophic pathogens is based on ABA-dependent priming for callose. Plant J. 2004, 38 (1): 119-130. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02028.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Robert-Seilaniantz A, MacLean D, Jikumaru Y, Hill L, Yamaguchi S, Kamiya Y, Jones JDG: The microRNA miR393 re-directs secondary metabolite biosynthesis away from camalexin and towards glucosinolates. Plant J. 2011, 67 (2): 218-231. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04591.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khan MR, Fischer S, Egan D, Doohan FM: Biological control of fusarium seedling blight disease of wheat and barley. Phytopathology. 2006, 96 (4): 386-394. 10.1094/PHYTO-96-0386.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khan MR, Doohan FM: Bacterium-mediated control of Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley and associated mycotoxin contamination of grain. Biol Contr. 2009, 48 (1): 42-47. 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.08.015.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khan MR, Doohan FM: Comparison of the efficacy of chitosan with that of a fluorescent pseudomonad for the control of Fusarium head blight disease of cereals and associated mycotoxin contamination of grain. Biol Contr. 2009, 48 (1): 48-54. 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.08.014.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Petti C, Khan M, Doohan F: Lipid transfer proteins and protease inhibitors as key factors in the priming of barley responses to Fusarium head blight disease by a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Funct Integ Genomics. 2010, 10 (4): 619-627. 10.1007/s10142-010-0177-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koornneef M, Léon-Klosterziel KM, Schwartz SH, Zeevaart JAD: The genetic molecular dissection of abscisic acid biosynthesis and signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol Biochem. 1998, 36: 83-89. 10.1016/S0981-9428(98)80093-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zeevaart JAD, Creelmann RA: Metabolism and physiology of abscisic acid. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 1988, 39: 439-473. 10.1146/annurev.pp.39.060188.002255.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ding L, Xu H, Yi H, Yang L, Kong Z, Zhang L, Xue S, Jia H, Ma Z: Resistance to hemi-biotrophic F. graminearum infection is associated with coordinated and ordered expression of diverse defense signaling pathways. PLoS One. 2011, 6 (4): e19008-10.1371/journal.pone.0019008.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamada T: The role of Auxin in plant-disease development. Ann Rev Phytopatol. 1993, 31: 253-273. 10.1146/annurev.py.31.090193.001345.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ton J, D'Alessandro M, Jourdie V, Jakab G, Karlen D, Held M, Mauch-Mani B, Turlings TCJ: Priming by airborne signals boosts direct and indirect resistance in maize. Plant J. 2009, 49: 16-26.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kazan K, Manners JM: Linking development to defence: auxin in plant-pathogen interactions. Trends Plant Sci. 2009, 14: 373-382. 10.1016/j.tplants.2009.04.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fan J, Hill L, Crooks C, Doerner P, Lamb CJ: Abscisic acid has a key role in modulating diverse plant pathogen interactions. Plant Physiol. 2009, 150: 1750-1761. 10.1104/pp.109.137943.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Flors V, Ton J, Van Doorn R, Jakab G, Garcia-Agustin P, Mauch-Mani B: Interplay between JA, SA and ABA signalling during basal and induced resistance against Pseudomonas syringae and Alternaria brassicola. Plant J. 2008, 54: 81-92.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Agnew JL, Cohen JD, He P, Shan L, Sheen J, Kunkel BN: Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 alters Arabidopsis thaliana auxin physiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007, 104: 20131-20136. 10.1073/pnas.0704901104.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lawton K, Weymann K, Friedrich L, Vernooij B, Uknes S, Ryals J: Systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis requires salicylic acid but not ethylene. MPMI. 1995, 8 (6): 863-870. 10.1094/MPMI-8-0863.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Z, Li Q, Li Z, Staswick PE, Wang M, Zhu Y, He Z: Dual regulation role of GH3.5 in salicylic acid and auxin signaling during Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interaction. Plant Physiol. 2007, 145 (2): 450-64. 10.1104/pp.107.106021.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ding X, Cao Y, Huang L, Xu C, Li X, Wang S: Activation of the indole-3-acetic-acid-amido synthetase GH3-8 suppresses expansin expression and promotes salicylate-and jasmonate-indipendent basal immunity in rice. Plant Cell. 2008, 20: 228-240. 10.1105/tpc.107.055657.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Redman J, Whitcraft J, Johnson C, Arias J: Abiotic and biotic stress differentially stimulate as-1 element activity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Rep. 2002, 21: 180-185. 10.1007/s00299-002-0472-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klinedinst S, Pascuzzi P, Redman J, Desai M, Arias J: A xenobiotic-stress-activated transcription factor and its cognate target genes are preferentially expressed in root tip meristems. Plant Mol Biol. 2002, 42: 679-688.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Despres C, Chubak C, Rochon A, Clark R, Bethune T, Desveaux D, Fobert P: The Arabidopsis NPR1 disease resistance protein is a novel cofactor that confers redox regulation of DNA binding activity to the basic domain/leucine zipper transcription factor TGA1. Plant Cell. 2003, 15: 2181-2191. 10.1105/tpc.012849.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pieterse CM, Van Loon L: NPR1: the spider in the web of induced resistance signaling pathways. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2004, 7 (4): 456-464. 10.1016/j.pbi.2004.05.006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smyth EM, McCarthy J, Nevin R, Khan MR, Dow JM, O'Gara F, Doohan FM: In vitro analyses are not reliable predictors of the plant growth promotion capability of bacteria; a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain that promotes the growth and yield of wheat. J Appl Microbiol. 2011, 111 (3): 683-692. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05079.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsavkelova EA, Klimova SY, Cherdyntseva TA, Netrusov AI: Microbial producers of plant growth stimulators and their practical use: a review. Appl Biochem Microbiol. 2006, 42 (2): 117-126. 10.1134/S0003683806020013.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kochar M, Upadhyay A, Srivastava S: Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Psd and plant growth regulation by hormone overexpression. Res Microbiol. 2011, 162: 426-435. 10.1016/j.resmic.2011.03.006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Torres-Zabala M, Truman W, Bennett MH, Lafforgue G, Mansfield JW, Rodriguez Egea P, Bogre L, Grant M: Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato hijacks the Arabidopsis abscisic acid signalling pathway to cause disease. EMBO J. 2007, 26: 1434-1443. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601575.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kulkarni GB, Sajjan SS, Karegoudar TB: Pathogenicity of indole-3-acetic acid producing fungus Fusarium delphinoides strain GPK towards chickpea and pigeon pea. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2011, 131: 355-369. 10.1007/s10658-011-9813-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cuzick A, Lee S, Gezan S, Hammond-Kosack KE: NPR1 and EDS11 contribute to host resistance against Fusarium culmorum in Arabidopsis buds and flowers. Mol Plant Pathol. 2008, 9 (5): 697-704. 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2008.00488.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Robert-Seilaniantz A, Navarro L, Bari R, Jones JD: Pathological hormone inbalances. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2007, 10: 372-379. 10.1016/j.pbi.2007.06.003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grant M, Jones JDG: Hormone (Dis)harmony moulds plant health and disease. Science. 2009, 324: 750-752. 10.1126/science.1173771.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grant M, Lamb C: Systemic immunity. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2006, 9: 414-420. 10.1016/j.pbi.2006.05.013.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gopalan S, et al: Reversal of an immunity associated plant cell death program by the growth regulator auxin. BMC Res Notes. 2008, 1: 10.1186/1756-0500-1-126.Google Scholar
- Kumaraswamy GK, Kushalappa AC, Choo TM, Dion Y, Rioux S: Differential metabolic response of barley genotypes, varying in resistance, to trichothecene-producing and-nonproducing (tri5-) isolates of Fusarium graminearum. Plant Pathol. 2012, 61: 509-521. 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02528.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cao FY, Yoshioka K, Desveaux D: The roles of ABA in plant–pathogen interactions. J Plant Res. 2011, 124 (4): 489-499. 10.1007/s10265-011-0409-y.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mauch-Mani B, Mauch F: The role of abscisic acid in plant-pathogen interactions. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005, 8 (4): 409-414. 10.1016/j.pbi.2005.05.015.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Asselbergh B, De Vleesschauwer D, Höfte M: Abscisic acid has a key role in modulating diverse plant-pathogen interactions. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008, 21 (6): 709-719. 10.1094/MPMI-21-6-0709.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang Z, Buchenauer H: Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigation of pathogen development and host responses in resistant and susceptible wheat spikes infected by Fusarium culmorum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 2000, 57 (6): 255-268. 10.1006/pmpp.2000.0305.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang Z, Buchenauer H: Cytology and ultrastructure of the infection of wheat spikes by Fusarium culmorum. Mycol Res. 2000, 104 (9): 1083-1093. 10.1017/S0953756200002495.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Steed A, Travella S, Keller B, Nicholson P: Fusarium graminearum exploits ethylene signalling to colonize dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. New Phytol. 2009, 182 (4): 975-983. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02821.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kraft M, Kuglitsch R, Kwiatkowski J, Frank M, Grossmann K: Indole-3-acetic acid and auxin herbicides up-regulate 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene expression and abscisic acid accumulation in cleavers (Galium aparine): interaction with ethylene. J Exp Bot. 2007, 58 (6): 1497-1503. 10.1093/jxb/erm011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Company P, Gonzalez-Bosch C: Identification of a copper chaperone from tomato fruits infected with Botrytis cinerea by differential display. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003, 304 (4): 825-830. 10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00680-6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu T, Zhang H, Li X, Zheng X: Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea in apple fruit by Cryptococcus laurentii and indole-3-aceti acid. Biol Contr. 2008, 46: 171-177. 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.04.008.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Higo K, Ugawa Y, Iwamoto M, Korenaga T: Plant cis-acting regulatory DNA elements (PLACE) database. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999, 27 (1): 297-300. 10.1093/nar/27.1.297.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Prestridge DS: SIGNAL SCAN: A computer program that scans DNA sequences for eukaryotic transcriptional elements. CABIOS. 1991, 7: 203-206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dobrev IP, Miroslav K: Fast and efficient separation of cytokinins from auxin and abscisic acid and their purification using mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. J Chromatogr A. 2002, 950 (1–2): 21-29.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dobrev PI, Havlícek L, Vágner M, Malbeck J, Kamínek M: Purification and determination of plant hormones auxin and abscisic acid using solid phase extraction and two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2005, 1075 (1–2): 159-166.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chang S, Puryer J, Cairney J: A simple and efficient method for isolating RNA from pine trees. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1993, 11: 113-116. 10.1007/BF02670468.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Livak KJ, Schmittegen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitave PCR and the 2-ΔΔCt method. Methods. 2001, 25: 402-408. 10.1006/meth.2001.1262.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.