Expression analysis of HvOS1, HvOS2 after treatment of seedlings with ABA and JA. A). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of HvOS1 and HvOS2 genes at 6 and 24 h after treatment of Caresse seedlings with 100 μM ABA and JA respectively. Grey and black bars, ABA and JA hormone-treated plants, respectively; white bars, no hormone treated plants (mocked with H2O/Tween for 6 h and 24 h, respectively). B) Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the barley genes HVA22 (known to be induced by ABA) and HvADC2 (known to be induced by JA) at 6 and 24 h after treatment of Caresse seedlings with 100 μM ABA and 100 μM JA, respectively, used as positive controls. Expression values were normalized to those of HvActin. Data represent mean values from two independent experiments with standard deviations. Relative expression ratio of each sample was compared to the control group which was untreated plants, 0 h, and was assigned the value of 1. Values significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control group (untreated 0 h) are marked with an asterisk.