Chemically-induced resistance to TMV in plants expressing MtRDR1 and Aox- derived transgenes. TMV coat protein (CP) accumulation in directly-inoculated leaves was examined at 3 and 4 days post-inoculation (DPI) by immunoblot analysis of soluble proteins. (A) Leaves of N. benthamiana plants transformed with an 'empty' transformation vector (Control), or a MtRDR1 transgene fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (22) were infiltrated with water [W: amended with 0.05% (v/v) ethanol] or 2.5 mM SA prior to inoculation with 0.05 μg/ml TMV U1. (B) Leaves of plants harboring the 35S:MtRDR1 transgene or doubly-transformed with the 35S:MtRDR1 transgene and an AOX transgene fused to the 35S promoter, from lines confirmed to have increased (↑) alternative respiratory pathway (AP) capacity, were infiltrated with water or 2 μM antimycin A prior to inoculation. Equal loading of gel lanes with protein is shown by accumulation of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (LSU) revealed by Ponceau S staining of the immunoblot membrane.