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Table 1 Effects of experimental warming on Arabidopsis

From: The effect of experimental warming on leaf functional traits, leaf structure and leaf biochemistry in Arabidopsis thaliana

Growth, physiological, biochemical and structural parameters Ambient temperature
(23/18°C)
Elevated temperature I
(25.5/20.5°C)
Elevated temperature II
(28/23°C)
Life span (days) 76.2 ± 2.2a 71.0 ± 3.6b 60.4 ± 1.9c
Plant biomass (mg) 2128.0 ± 349.4a 2116.7 ± 337.7a 1378.5 ± 370.4b
Total weight of seeds (mg) 392.5 ± 110.7b 536.6 ± 139.6a 338.5 ± 114.9b
SD (number per mm2) on the adaxial surface 181 ± 13b 224 ± 15a 200 ± 14ab
SD (number per mm2) on the abaxial surface 206 ± 14b 265 ± 16a 214 ± 13b
gs (m mol m-2 s-1) 378 ± 24b 423 ± 28a 385 ± 21ab
E (m mol m-2 s-1) 7.5 ± 0.4b 8.4 ± 0.6a 7.7 ± 0.4b
A (μ mol m-2 s-1) 14.3 ± 1.1b 16.5 ± 1.4a 12.4 ± 0.9c
Soluble sugars (μgmg-1 DW) 38.7 ± 3.0ab 35.2 ± 1.3b 40.0 ± 2.0a
Starch (μgmg-1 DW) 61.4 ± 5.7a 53.7 ± 2.3b 48.8 ± 4.3b
Protein (μgmg-1 DW) 19.7 ± 1.9a 20.0 ± 2.3a 22.0 ± 2.2a
Chlorophyll a (mg g-1 FW) 0.93 ± 0.05b 1.04 ± 0.07a 0.84 ± 0.04b
Chlorophyll b (mg g-1 FW) 0.30 ± 0.02ab 0.34 ± 0.03a 0.26 ± 0.03b
Chlorophyll a+b (mg g-1 FW) 1.23 ± 0.06b 1.38 ± 0.09a 1.10 ± 0.07b
Chlorophyll a/b 3.1 ± 0.2a 3.1 ± 0.2a 3.2 ± 0.2a
MDA (nmol g-1 FW) 2.3 ± 0.2b 2.0 ± 0.2b 3.8 ± 0.5a
Proline (ug g-1 FW) 15.3 ± 2.1b 22.8 ± 3.2a 14.4 ± 1.7b
SOD (Unit g-1 FW) 295 ± 16b 347 ± 25a 319 ± 18ab
CAT (Unit g-1 FW min-1) 7.9 ± 1.1b 16.1 ± 1.5a 17.7 ± 1.9a
Leaf thickness (μm) 159 ± 14a 155 ± 14ab 146 ± 13b
Cell Size (μm2) 981 ± 398a 939 ± 372a 774 ± 337b
Number of cell layer 7.6 ± 1.1a 7.5 ± 1.2a 7.3 ± 1.2a
Number of chloroplasts per cell 8.5 ± 2.2a 9.0 ± 2.8a 6.6 ± 2.5b
Chloroplast length (μm)* 5.0 ± 1.3a 5.1 ± 1.4a 5.1 ± 1.3a
Chloroplast width (μm)* 2.3 ± 0.5a 1.9 ± 0.4b 1.6 ± 0.4c
Area of chloroplast profile (μm2) 9.2 ± 5.0a 7.8 ± 4.0b 6.7 ± 3.5b
Area per starch grain (μm2) 1.2 ± 0.7a 0.5 ± 0.3b 0.5 ± 0.3b
Ratio of total starch grains per chloroplast relative to chloroplast area (%) 29 ± 9a 15 ± 5b 13 ± 5b
Mitochondrial length (μm)* 0.7 ± 0.2b 0.9 ± 0.2a 0.7 ± 0.1b
Mitochondrial width (μm)* 0.5 ± 0.1b 0.6 ± 0.1a 0.5 ± 0.1b
  1. Values (mean ± standard deviation) with the same letter are not significantly different at α = 0.05 by the Bonferroni t-test. *The length of chloroplasts and mitochondria is the longest dimension, and the width of chloroplasts and mitochondria is the widest dimension. SD: stomatal density; gs: stomatal conductance; E: transpiration rate; A: net CO2 assimilation rate; DW: dry weight; FW: fresh weight.