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Table 2 Physicochemical parameters of microvinifications.

From: Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

Harvest year 2005 2006
Wine stage DMU BW DMU BW
Harvest date TH-7 TH TH+10 TH-7 TH TH+10 TH-7 TH TH+10 TH-7 TH TH+10
Total sugar content (densimetric titration, g/L) 170.0 183.0 193.0 - - - 173.0 180.0 192.0 - - -
Alcohol content (densimetric titration, % vol) 10.1 10.9 11.4 - - - 10.3 10.7 11.4 - - -
pH 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2
Total acid content (potentiometric titration, g H2SO4/L) 7.0 6.2 5.6 5.0 4.6 4.1 8.3 7.3 6.2 5.1 4.7 4.1
Total enzymatic SO2 content (Lisa method, mg/L) 13.0 29.0 29.0 33.0 37.0 49.0 34.0 20.0 29.0 37.0 37.0 49.0
Tartaric acid (g/L) 7.0 7.6 6.2 3.7 3.3 2.9 6.8 7.4 8.9 3.5 2.5 2.7
L-malic acid (g/L) 5.3 4.8 3.6 - - - 5.5 5.4 5.4 - - -
Total sugar: total acid ratio 24.3 29.5 34.5 - - - 20.8 24.6 31.0 - - -
Total nitrogen (mg N/L) 227.0 261.0 237.0 138.0 203.0 198.0 454.0 223.0 222.0 171.0 197.0 186.0
Ammoniacal nitrogen (Lisa method, mg N/L) 42.0 41.0 59.0 - - - 49.0 47.0 34.0 - - -
Glucose + fructose (Lisa method, g/L) - - - 0.8 0.9 0.9 - - - 0.8 0.8 1.1
Abs atomic potassium (mg/L) 1310.0 1100.0 1480.0 565.0 477.0 484.0 1603.0 1563.0 1823.0 503.0 563.0 502.0
Abs atomic calcium (mg/L) 82.0 57.0 53.0 - - - 47.0 99.0 80.0 - - -
Serine (%) 7.2 7.1 - - - - 9.8 6.8 - - - -
Threonine (%) 4.5 4.1 - - - - 0.6 0.6 - - - -
Asparagine (%) 0.9 1.0 - - - - 1.1 1.0 - - - -
Glutamine (%) 11.5 8.2 - - - - 19.8 17.1 - - - -
Proline (%) 28.3 36.7 - - - - 26.8 35.5 - - - -
Alanine (%) 19.5 13.9 - - - - 17.8 16.0 - - - -
y-aminobutyric acid (%) 6.4 5.0 - - - - 5.0 5.9 - - - -
Arginine (%) 5.5 4.5 - - - - 9.0 7.6 - - - -
  1. Except proline which is not used by yeast, all amino acids noticed above correspond to 80% of yeast nitrogen needs.
  2. -, not tested; BW, base wine; DMU, decanted must; TH-7, 7-days before theoretical harvest; TH, theoretical harvest; TH+10, 10-days after harvest.