The coffee gene CaNDR1a functionally complements the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 null mutant. Bacterial solutions were hand-infiltrated into leaves with syringes as described in the 'Methods' section. (a) Representative symptoms triggered by the virulent (DC3000) and avirulent (DC3000::AvrRpt2) Pst strains. A 2 × 107 cfu mL-1 inoculum was used for this experiment, which was conducted twice. Pictures were taken 7 days after inoculation. (b) and (c) Bacterial growth was monitored in planta by assaying leaf samples 0, 2, and 4 days post-inoculation. CaNDR1a-expressing lines (T3-1, T3-2 and T3-3), like the WT plants, are resistant to Pst DC3000::AvrRpt2, whereas ndr1-1 mutants are susceptible. Expressing CaNDR1a in the ndr1-1 genetic background increased resistance to strain DC3000, as shown by significant reductions in leaf bacterial populations in lines T3-2 and T3-3 at 4 dpi. A 2 × 105 cfu mL-1 inoculum was used for this experiment and the experiment was conducted twice. Means and standard errors (4 biological replicates) are shown for a representative experiment. Different letters indicate a significant difference at 2 dpi (Roman letters) or 4 dpi (Greek letters), as determined by ANOVA of square-root transformed data followed by a Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test (α < 5%). No significant difference in leaf bacterial concentration was observed among Arabidopsis genotypes at T0.