A) Qualitative RT-PCR expression analysis of barley PcG genes. R, roots; M, meristem; L, Leaves; YS, young shoots; St, stamens; Pi, unfertilized pistils; 1-2, 1-2 DAF; 3-5, 3-5 DAF; HvActin, was used as the internal control. Cultivar was Carina (a medium-grain cultivar). DAF, Days after fertilization. B) Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of PcG >genes. Expression values were normalized to those of HvActin. The relative expression ratio of each sample is compared to the control group which was C5 (Caresse immature flowers). C, cultivar Caresse, (white bars); IP, cultivar Ippolytos (grey bars). 5, Immature flower; 6, Seed 1-3 DAF; 7, Seed 3-5 DAF; 8, Seed 5-10 DAF; 9, Seed 10-15 DAF. Data represent mean values from two independent experiments with standard deviations. Values significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control group (C5) are marked with an asterisk.