Estimation of flavonoids in GLRaV-3-infected symptomatic and virus-free green leaves. Total amounts of (a) anthocyanins, (b) flavonols and (c) proanthocyanidins from GLRaV-3-infected (designated as virus-infected) and virus-free samples are shown. Columns represent mean value from five biological replicates and vertical bars indicate standard errors. NONE in (a) indicates no anthocyanins detected in virus-free leaves. Significant differences between virus-infected and virus-free leaves were determined by one-way ANOVA using the SigmaPlot 11 software and indicated by asterisks (* = p < 0.05). C.E. = catechin equivalent.