Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L.) is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures
© Ribas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 20 October 2010
Accepted: 19 May 2011
Published: 19 May 2011
Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica.
We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation) and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%). At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization.
Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our results make Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cultures a viable and useful tool both for coffee breeding and for the functional analysis of agronomically important genes.
Genome sequencing of important crop plants, such as wheat, sugarcane, tomato, potato, banana, eucalyptus, cacao and coffee, has already been completed or is in progress . The resulting information opens significant new challenges in plant biology, including determining the function of predicted genes and introducing new desirable traits in pre-existing outstanding genotypes by genetic engineering in a shorter time. Shortening the time required is particularly attractive for the improvement of woody species : pedigree selection programs in Coffea arabica, a preferentially autogamous woody species, often last 25 years. In response to an unexpected threat, genetically transformed plants could thus provide a satisfactory solution, all the more since in a few years, coffee genome sequencing  will enable identification of genes coding for very important agronomical traits linked to disease resistance and/or abiotic stresses.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a widely used and powerful tool for introducing foreign DNA into many plant species. It has several advantages over physical transformation methods including its tendency to generate single or a low copy number of transgenes with defined ends and preferential integration into transcriptionally active regions of the chromosomes . Agrobacterium-mediated DNA delivery has become a powerful tool in functional genomics as it is the most reliable way to assess gene function by generating gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutants . However, for many important crop plants, including most woody species, a method for genetic transformation has either not yet been established or is still laborious and inefficient. For such species, higher throughput transformation systems are needed to be able to fully benefit from the rapid development of plant genomics for basic research and for the design of new genetic improvement strategies including both conventional breeding and genetic transformation.
There are very few examples of the introduction of genes of agronomic interest in Arabica coffee. Leroy et al.  regenerated transgenic coffee plants carrying the CRY1-AC gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is effective against the coffee leaf miner. Ogita et al.  obtained transgenic coffee plants with suppressed caffeine synthesis using RNA interference (RNAi) technology through inhibition of a theobromine synthase gene (CaMXMT1). Genetic transformation of coffee has been achieved using several types of explants (leaves, embryogenic calli, somatic embryos, protoplasts) and different approaches including A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation [6–9], A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation [10, 11] and biolistic gene delivery [12, 13]. The recovery of transgenic plants appears to be easier with Coffea canephora species than with C. arabica [14–16]. However the protocols available so far, which mostly use A. tumefaciens, are not reproducible and transformation efficiency is very low (less than 1%), thus seriously limiting their potential routine use. Today, embryogenic callus derived from leaf tissues is the most widely used target tissue for the genetic transformation of C. arabica [7, 9, 17]. However the induction of embryogenic tissues in C. arabica takes longer and is more difficult than in the other cultivated species C. canephora. The limited availability of embryogenic tissues, together with the low transformation efficiency of this type of tissue, is one of the main limitations to genetic transformation in coffee. Each round of a transformation experiment requires a new and uncertain process of production and selection of embryogenic calli that takes around eight months.
For these reasons, defining the conditions for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic callus is a decisive step towards the large-scale, continuous production of target tissues for genetic transformation. Embryogenic cultures have already been used to establish reliable and efficient genetic transformation procedures for different woody species including Prunus [18, 19], grapevine [20, 21], rubber tree  and chestnut tree . To date, embryogenic callus cultures maintained in liquid or semi-solid medium have never been used as target tissues for genetic transformation of the two cultivated species C. arabica and C. canephora. However, high-throughput methods for coffee propagation based on the use of established embryogenic cultures have already been developed by our team [24, 25] and are currently used for the commercial diffusion of elite F1 hybrid varieties [26, 27]. Such systems could also provide suitable support for the high-throughput regeneration of coffee transgenic varieties.
In the present work, we describe for the first time in the C. arabica species a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol that allows the generation of thousands transgenic coffee trees from multiple independent transformation events.
Explant and co-cultivation conditions
Effect of the type of target tissue on transformation efficiency
Type of target tissue
No. of co-cultivated calli
No. of transformed calli
Transformation efficiency (%)
3.90 ± 5.80
Established embryogenic cell suspension (4 months)
0.02 ± 0.03
Established embryogenic callus culture (4 months)
17 ± 0.02
Effect of different co-cultivation factors on transformation efficiency using established embryogenic callus cultures
No. of co-cultivated calli
No. of transformed calli
Transformation efficiency (%)
Agrobacterium conc. (OD600)
1 (OD600 = 0.6)
12.5 ± 11.1
1.9 ± 4.1
Co-cultivation temperature (°C)
4.7 ± 4.3
0.6 ± 1.2
Effect of the composition of the embryogenic proliferation culture medium on subsequent transformation
Effect of mineral salt concentrations in the embryogenic culture proliferation medium on callus growth and transformation efficiency
Mineral salt concentration in the ECP proliferation media
Callus growth (mg/month)
No. of co-cultivated calli
Transformation efficiency (%)
103 ± 20.7 b*
15.6 ± 6.6**
267 ± 24.1 a
10.5 ± 14.1
254 ± 60.5 a
217 ± 53.6 a
Effect of the phenotype of the embryogenic culture
Histological studies revealed major differences between the three embryogenic callus phenotypes (Figure 3). The whitish phenotype (Figure 3A1) displayed a much looser structure comprising isolated embryogenic cells, along with small pro-embryos (always < 10 cells) [Figure 3A2]. A proembryo segmentation and degeneration process was observed, corresponding to the initiation and rapid degeneration of somatic embryogenesis events. Cells constituting this type of callus did not exhibit a dense cytoplasm (nor did those belonging to proembryos) but had small starch grains and the visible mitosis stages suggested rapid divisions and growth (Figure 3A3). The yellow callus (Figure 3B1) corresponded to a highly homogeneous tissue mainly comprised of small cell aggregates similar to proembryogenic masses (PEMs) (Figure 3B2). The cells exhibited a high nucleus cytoplasm ratio and a voluminous central nucleus, numerous small starch grains around the nucleus and a very dense cytoplasm rich in soluble and reserve proteins (Figure 3B3). The cell walls varied in thickness as is typically observed in embryogenic cells [28, 29]. The gray phenotype (Figure 3C1) was much more heterogeneous and was made up of a mix of degenerating tissues and active intermediate areas (Figure 3C2). The cells were more vacuolated with a non-central nucleus, a small nucleolus and less abundant but bigger starch grains (Figure 3C3). All these observations are generally associated with degenerating tissues. Sub-culturing the different types of calli separately showed that each phenotype was maintained over the sub-cultures (data not shown). The stability of these embryogenic callus phenotypes offered an opportunity to select the transformation-competent yellow phenotype and easily eliminate the undesirable ones during the proliferation process aimed at building up stocks of highly competent embryogenic material with a view to genetic transformation experiments.
Effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency
Transgenic coffee plant regeneration and molecular analysis
In spite of an increasing number of successes, transgenic plant production is still difficult and limited to a small number of species and genotypes. This is particularly true of woody species, as these are often recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Chevreau  reported that only three fruit woody species were distinguished by a large number of successfully transformed genotypes: more than 10 species of Citrus , 40 genotypes of apple tree , and 35 of grapevine . For the majority of species, the efficiency of the methods used remains variable and weak. However, efficient methods have been described in a number of woody crops. One category of methods consists in directly transforming zygotic embryos or young seedlings (epicotyls, hypocotyls) to rapidly obtain transformed organogenic calli and derived plantlets; this is the case in Allocasuarina , citrange  and poplar . Another category consisting in regenerating transformants from established embryogenic cultures has been described in several species including grapevine [21, 37], Citrus , rubber tree , Prunus subhirtella [18, 19] and American chestnut . These procedures were shown to be efficient not only for basic research in functional genomics aimed at characterizing T-DNA insertion [21, 39, 40], the long-term stability of transgene expression  or transgene silencing , but also for the production of transgenic varieties. In the last ten years, embryogenic callus directly produced from leaf explants has been the most widely used tissue for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in coffee . Nevertheless low transformation frequencies were reported and, like for other perennial crops, the availability of embryogenic tissues suitable for genetic transformation remains one of the main bottlenecks for developing genetic transformation strategies. In this work, we demonstrate that established embryogenic cultures can be used to improve the efficiency of coffee tree transformation. Another advantage of such cultures is that, unlike other target tissues used for transformation whose availability is seasonal, embryogenic cultures are available all year round. This means transformation experiments can be planned at any time, which is a prerequisite for setting up a more efficient and faster transformation pipeline.
The reliability of GFP fluorescence to monitor transformation efficiency in coffee was confirmed by a large-scale trial aimed at regenerating fully-transformed plantlets using the hygromycin marker gene. In this trial, high frequencies of hygromycin resistant calli (82.5%) were evaluated that were similar to those of GFP expressing calli (90-93%) obtained in the same transformation conditions. In a previous work on coffee, transformation efficiency ranged from less than 1% for the recalcitrant C. arabica  to 33% for C. canephora . The fluorescent marker GFP has a major advantage compared to other reporter genes in that it enables non-invasive detection of transformed cells without the introduction of co-factors or the destruction of the biological sample . Similarly, GFP visual selection was recently used as the only marker to detect transgenic calli lines of Hevea brasiliensis without antibiotic pressure . As previously reported [7, 45], highly efficient selection of transformed coffee tissues was achieved and escapes were prevented when the antibiotic hygromycin was used in the four-month selection step.
It is noteworthy that in our study most progress in improving transformation efficiency was achieved by optimizing the production conditions of the embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation rather than by optimizing the physical co-cultivation conditions. The positive effect on genetic transformation of reducing the strength of mineral salts in the proliferation medium of coffee embryogenic cultures (MS/2 or MS/4) is consistent with reports in the literature. Although it has been widely demonstrated that ions are involved in bacterial attachment to plants , transformation has been successfully achieved in numerous species by using half-strength or even more diluted salt solution media or solutions that specifically lack certain salts such as CaCl2 in the pre-culture medium  or co-cultivation medium [48, 49]. It has been shown that during long-term culture, plant cells may lose the need for auxin and/or cytokinin to maintain active growth. This process known as 'habituation', which is common in callus cultures in some plant species such as sugarbeet , was described as a shift from auxo- to autotrophic state for growth regulator requirements . Coffee embryogenic cultures do not require auxin or cytokinin to proliferate, although it was possible to stimulate proliferation by optimum exogenous concentrations of both growth regulators. Similarly, genetic transformation of long-term cultures was possible without auxin or cytokinin. Our results specifically revealed a very negative effect of cytokinin and a positive effect of auxin in optimizing transformation ability. Blanc et al.  showed that simultaneously increasing the auxin and cytokinin supply in the pre-culture medium prior to transformation of rubber tree using embryogenic cultures stimulated the development of active and fast growing cells, hence improving transformation efficiency.
Coffee embryogenic callus cultures were successfully established by sub-culturing the recently formed active embryogenic tissues every four weeks. It is widely acknowledged that a lack of regular subcultures leads embryogenic calli to lose their embryogenic potential due to cell ageing. Applying short subcultures (14-21 days) on a maintenance (i.e. proliferation) medium is an essential step in establishing long-term cultures in many perennial crops [52–56]. The process of establishing coffee embryogenic cultures leads to the development and maintenance of three morphologically different callus phenotypes with highly contrasted potential for genetic transformation. Several morphological variants with contrasted transformation potential have also been observed during the proliferation and maintenance of embryogenic calli in cotton . Andrade et al.  highlighted great variability in the way in which embryogenic cultures proliferate and that this variability should be taken into account as it strongly affects further genetic transformation. These authors described embryogenic culture proliferation as a continuum along a developmental gradient from undifferentiated embryogenic callus through slightly more differentiated proembryogenic masses or PEMs  to repetitive embryogenesis at the globular embryo stage or even later . Our histological studies in coffee showed that, depending the callus phenotype or the age of the embryogenic culture, either distinct cell types can co-exist, resulting in a heterogeneous proliferating callus, or only one cell type is present, forming a very homogeneous tissue.
One priority of any team involved in developing a transformation procedure is to identify the suitable target cell type. At the histological level, the yellow coffee callus with high transformation ability (transformation efficiency >90%) proved to consist of PEMs similar to those observed in the Daucus carota model [58, 60, 61] that were described as proliferating compact cell masses able to produce somatic embryos. In our study, improved transformation efficiency was also systematically associated with increased quantities of PEMs when different auxin/cytokinin balances (data not shown) and embryogenic culture ages were tested. Taken together, these results indicate that PEMs are probably the competent target tissue for coffee genetic transformation in C. arabica. PEMs have already been identified as suitable target cells for the transformation of several woody species for which transformation methods using embryogenic cultures have been established like Vitis vinifera , V. rotundifolia , avocado  and American chestnut . The particular structure of PEMs could favorably influence the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation process. For instance in Arabidopsis thaliana, Sangwan et al.  showed that, irrespective of their origin, the competent cells were small, isodiametric with thin primary cell walls, small vacuoles, prominent nuclei and dense cytoplasm. Most of these characteristics correspond to those of coffee PEMs. The small size of PEMs associated with their looser organization increases bacterial accessibility. In addition, the high regenerative potential of this cell type is an indispensable quality for regenerating transgenic plants.
Although embryogenic callus directly regenerated on leaf explants is the most widely used tissue for coffee transformation, low transformation efficiencies (< 1%) were obtained . However, the histological heterogeneity of coffee embryogenic calli has already been reported . Our work confirmed the strong heterogeneity of this tissue but also revealed its low transformation-competent PEM contents. Consequently, we recommend avoiding direct use of embryogenic callus for transformation experiments and instead completing a number of preliminary proliferation cycles to increase the quantity of PEMs.
Many authors have studied the influence of ageing on transgenic lines. Indeed, as embryogenic cultures of some species can be maintained for several years without loss of embryogenic capacity, they provide a model to study the long-term expression of transgenes during in vitro culture and in regenerated plants [19, 66]. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to the effect of the age of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues on subsequent transformation efficiency. In our study, transformation efficiency increased markedly with the age of the coffee embryogenic culture to reach maximum at seven months of proliferation, and remained at over 90% for several months. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a strong positive effect of ageing of embryogenic cultures on their transformation competence has been demonstrated. As the regeneration capacity of coffee embryogenic cultures remained stable over two years (data not shown), this means that highly efficient and reliable regeneration of transgenic plants is possible. It has been reported that some Vitis vinifera genotypes produced transgenic embryo lines irrespective of 4, 8, or 12 month embryogenic culture age, whereas others produced embryo lines only from the youngest 4-month cultures . However, this response was attributed to differences in genotype to maintain their regeneration potential under long-term conditions and not directly to a loss of transformation competency. The same was recently observed in Citrus by Dutt and Grosser , who compared the transformation competence of six-year-old and one-year-old embryogenic cultures. In that study, although some EGFP expression in the callus phase of the old cell line was observed, it was not possible to regenerate transgenic embryos and plants from such cells. Among the parameters we studied, the age of the culture was the most important factor in improving the efficiency of coffee transformation. The optimization of this parameter should thus be taken into account in other species for which transformation procedures using embryogenic cultures as target tissues have already been established.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation often allows transgenic plants containing single copy insertions to be obtained . Low transgene copy numbers have recently been reported in transformants derived from embryogenic cultures in several trees [21, 23, 38]. Similarly, our results in coffee showed that all the selected plants had T-DNA integrated in their genome and that almost half contained single transgene insertion sites. These results are consistent with previous observations in coffee plants transformed via A. tumefaciens with from one to five inserted T-DNA copies, of which 69% harbored one T-DNA copy . It has been shown that transgene expression is influenced by the number of T-DNA copies and/or the integration site . Even if inactivation of transgene expression can occur in plants with a single copy , this phenomenon is less frequent than with multiple transgene copies [69, 70]. For this reason, the regeneration of a high proportion of coffee plants with a low copy number of the inserted T-DNA is important for the application of this transformation technology for both genomic purposes and breeding programs.
The availability of an efficient and reliable transformation procedure in coffee tree is very important given the opportunities that will be soon available in functional genomics thanks to the genome sequencing of C. canephora. Moreover, in a perennial species like coffee in which selection takes a very long time, the use of genetic transformation alongside conventional breeding techniques will enable the introduction of agronomically useful traits in the best cultivated varieties in only one step. In this context, it was important to establish transformation procedures based on the use of target tissues taken from the mature tissues of elite varieties. This is the case of the process developed in the present work that will enable the routine transformation of embryogenic cultures derived from leaves selected on the mother tree and the subsequent regeneration of large quantities of transformants from numerous independent transformation events.
All the studies were conducted using the genotype C. arabica var. Caturra. The leaf explants were collected from trees maintained in a greenhouse located at IRD (Montpellier, France). Embryogenic calli were induced as previously described . Briefly, 1 cm2 pieces of young leaves from the mother tree were surface sterilized and used as explants. Leaves were disinfected by immersion in 10% calcium hypochlorite solution containing 1% Tween 80 for 20 min followed by 8% calcium hypochlorite solution for 10 min and rinsed four times with sterile water. The explants were cultured for one month on MS/2  'C' callogenesis medium containing 2.26 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.92 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 9.84 μM isopentenyladenine (iP) allowing the production of primary callus comprising cytoplasmic meristematic cells. The leaf explants were then transferred to MS/2 'ECP' embryogenic callus production medium containing 4.52 μM 2,4-D and 17.76 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) for 6-8 months until regeneration of embryogenic callus. Yellow embryogenic callus appeared on the necrotic primary callus. Embryogenic callus was induced in baby food jars at 27°C in the dark. All the media used in this work were supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose and their pH was adjusted to 5.7 prior to the addition of 2.8 g/L phytagel. The media were autoclaved at 120°C and 1.1 kg/cm2 for 20 min, and then 25 ml of medium was added to each 100 × 15 mm Petri dish or baby food jar.
To establish the embryogenic cell suspension, embryogenic calli were transferred to 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks at a density of 1 g/L in MS/2 'CP' liquid proliferation medium  with 4.52 μM 2.4-D and 4.65 μM kinetin, and shaken at 100 rpm at 27 °C in the dark. Suspension cultures of embryogenic cell aggregates were generally established after three months under such conditions.
Establishment of embryogenic callus cultures: long-term embryogenic cultures were successfully established on semi-solid medium using the embryogenic callus and by transferring the yellowish fragments collected from the upper part of embryogenic calli to fresh semi-solid 'ECP' MS/2 embryogenic callus production medium  with 4.5 μM 2.4D and 12 μM 6-BA solidified with 2.8 g/L phytagel once a month. The cultures were kept in baby food jars at 27°C in the dark.
Agrobacterium strain and binary vector
The disarmed strain of A. tumefaciens LBA1119 carrying a binary vector (pBIN35SGFP) containing the reporter gene GFP5 coding for green fluorescent protein under control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was used for all experiments aimed at designing a transformation protocol. The LBA1119 strain carrying the binary vector pMDC32  containing the HPTII gene that confers hygromycin resistance was used to regenerate transgenic plants and to validate the transformation protocol in the same culture conditions.
Co-cultivation and decontamination
Coffee explants were maintained in their culture container, i.e. baby food jars, and immersed in 10 ml of A. tumefaciens suspension (OD600 = 0.6) for 10 min without shaking. The bacterial suspension was removed and the inoculated explants were co-cultivated at 20 °C for five days in the dark. After this period, the explants were rinsed twice with 20 ml sterile water after which 20 ml of ECP medium containing 1.2 g/L cefotaxime was added to each jar. The cultures were placed on a rotary shaker at 30 rpm for three hours. The liquid was then removed and the calli rinsed with ECP medium for 15 min. The liquid was removed and the explants were blotted on dry filter paper to remove excess bacterial solution. They were subsequently placed in Petri dishes containing ECP medium with 500 mg/L cefotaxime. From each jar, four Petri dishes were made up each containing 20 explants. The cultures were placed in the dark for four weeks at 27°C after which GFP reporter gene expression was assessed.
Experiments aimed at improving the efficiency of genetic transformation
Type of target tissue. We tested three sources of embryogenic material as target tissue. Embryogenic callus conventionally used for transformation was compared to established embryogenic cultures either in liquid medium (four-month-old embryogenic cell suspensions) or on semi-solid medium (four-month-old embryogenic callus cultures).
Co-cultivation conditions. Two Agrobacterium suspension concentrations (undiluted (OD 0.6) or diluted 1/10 by adding 'ECP' medium) and two temperatures (20°C or 27°C) were tested on four-month-old embryogenic callus cultures.
Proliferation conditions of the embryogenic callus cultures. The following modifications to the ECP medium were compared by assessing callus growth and transformation efficiency after three sub-cultures: auxin concentration (0, 1.8, 4.5, 9 and 18 μM 2.4D), cytokinin concentration (0, 3, 13, 23 and 32 μM 6-BA) and Macro and Microelement salt concentration (MS/4, MS/2, MS, 1.5MS).
Callus morphology. Different embryogenic callus phenotypes observed under the same culture conditions [yellow, whitish and gray (Figures 3A1, 3B1, 3C1)] were compared for subsequent transformation efficiency.
Culture ageing. Embryogenic cultures of different ages (embryogenic callus or 1, 4, 7, 9, 16 and 26-month-old embryogenic callus cultures exhibiting the same yellow phenotype) were tested for genetic transformation.
Evaluation of transformation efficiency by GFP visualization
All the embryogenic tissues tested for genetic transformation were used to evaluate stable expression of GFP 30 days after Agrobacterium inoculation. These plant tissues were screened for GFP expression using a Leica MZ Fluo III (optic 0.63 Zeiss) fluorescence microscope supplied with a DC 300F camera (Leica Microsystems, Welzlar, Germany) with plant GFP filter no. 3 from Leica: excitation wavelengths: 470-540 nm (BP), emission wavelengths: 525-550 nm (BP). The autofluorescence from chlorophyll was blocked using a red interference filter. Transformation efficiency was calculated as the proportion (p) of transformed calli (p = x/n), where x was the number of transformed calli exhibiting GFP and n the number of co-cultivated calli.
The samples were fixed for 24 h in a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde, 2% paraformaldehyde and 1% caffeine in a 0.2 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. They were then dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol, embedded in a 7100 resin (LKB) and cut into 3 μm longitudinal sections. The sections were double-stained with PAS (periodic acid-Schiff)-NBB (Naphthol blue black). PAS specifically stains polysaccharides red (walls and starch) and NBB stains soluble and insoluble proteins blue [73, 74]. Sections were observed by conventional light microscopy through a DM600 Leica microscope and photographed. Two magnification lenses were used: Lens 109 Numerical aperture = 0.30 HC PL Fluotar (Ref. Leica 11506505) and Lens 209 Numerical aperture = 0.70 HC Plan APO (Ref. Leica 1506166). Pictures were taken with a Retiga 2000R camera (G-Imaging Co.).
Regeneration of transgenic plants
The best culture conditions were applied in a large-scale experiment to transform 560 calli from seven-month-old embryogenic cultures using the LBA1119 strain carrying the binary vector pMDC32. After decontamination, the cultures were subcultured every four weeks twice on 'R' regeneration medium  containing 17.76 μM 6-BA and 50 mg/L hygromycin and decreasing cefotaxime concentrations (250, 125 μg.ml-1) and twice on 'M' maturation medium  containing 1.35 μM 6-BA, 100 mg/L hygromicin and 125 mg/L cefotaxime. The other subcultures were carried out on 'M' maturation medium containing 1.35 μM 6-BA devoid of cefotaxime and hygromicin until plantlets developed. Several plants regenerated from each resistant callus. Ten months after co-cultivation, the plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse. During the entire regeneration process up to acclimatization, the cultures were maintained under a 14 h photoperiod (20 μmol.m-2s-1 light intensity) at 26°C.
PCR and Southern blot analysis of transgenic plants
Sixty putatively transformed greenhouse plants derived from independent transformation events (one plant selected at random per transformation event) and produced in the large-scale experiment were subjected to PCR analysis to detect the presence of the hygromycin resistance gene. The leaves were frozen in liquid nitrogen and DNA was extracted using a CTAB procedure  with modified extraction buffer (2% CTAB, 1.4 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris HCl, 20 mM EDTA pH 0.8). The primers used for amplification of a fragment of HPTII gene from the pMDC32 vector were: 5'-GCCTGAACTCACCGCGACGTC-3' and 5'-GCACTGACGGTGTCGTCCAT-3' (fragment size 506 bp). PCR was carried out in a 25 μl volume containing 50 ng of leaf genomic DNA, 1 U Taq DNA polymerase, 1X buffer (Promega, Madison, USA), 0.2 mM each dNTP, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.2 μM each primer. Amplification was performed in a thermal cycler GeneAmp® PCR system 9700, Applied Biosystem) as follows: 1 cycle of 2 min at 95°C, followed by 30 cycles of 1 min at 95°C, 1 min at 55°C, 1 min at 72°C, and a final extension of 4 min at 72°C. The reaction products were electrophoresed in 1% (w/v) agarose gels and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide.
Among the PCR-positive plants, 11 that derived from independent transformation events were chosen to perform Southern blot analysis to determine the number of transgene integration sites into the genome. Briefly, 20 μg of genomic DNA was digested with the restriction endonuclease EcoRI. There is no EcoRI restriction site on the probe sequence. DNA fragment separation by electrophoresis, transfer to nylon membrane, radioactive probe labeling and hybridization were performed as previously reported .
Transformation efficiency was calculated as the proportion (p) of transformed calli (p = x/n), where x was the number of transformed calli exhibiting GFP and n the number of co-cultivated calli. A 3 δ confidence limit for binomial distribution was calculated using the formula with a level of confidence of 99%. The transformation experiments with different types of target tissues were conducted independently in three replicates each containing 50 to 80 calli (150 to 240 tissues/type of target tissue) and experiments with different co-cultivation parameters in 3 or 4 replicates each comprising 26 to 85 calli (80 to 350 calli/co-cultivation parameter). The experiments with different mineral concentrations were conducted independently in four replicates each comprising 22 to 40 calli (87 to 160 calli/mineral concentration). The experiments with different hormone combinations were conducted independently in four replicates each comprising 60 calli (240 calli/ hormonal combination). For each callus phenotype, all the transformation experiments were conducted independently in three replicates each comprising 40 calli (120 calli/phenotype). For each culture age, all the transformation experiments were conducted in five to six replicates each comprising 40 calli (200 to 240 calli/culture age). Callus growth (mg/month) was measured by the difference between the final and initial weight of the embryogenic cultures after a 1 month proliferation cycle. The initial weight was calibrated at 120 ± 10 mg. Each datum corresponds to the mean ± SD of 4 measurements. We performed an ANOVA followed by the Tukey HSD test to identify significant differences between the means of all treatments.
List of abbreviations
cauliflower mosaic virus
- CP medium:
callus proliferation medium
4-D: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
- ECP medium:
embryogenic callus production medium
green fluorescence protein
- M medium:
maturation medium: OD: optical density
- R medium:
the Arabidopsis information resources.
We thank Marc Lartaud for assistance with light micrographs and Isabelle Jourdan for help with DNA extraction. Financial support for this study was provided by the Brazilian Government through a grant to Alessandra F. Ribas by the CAPES program and by the CIRAD funds for doctoral support.
- NBCI Genome Project database. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomeprj]
- Merkle SA, Dean JFD: Forest tree biotechnology. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2000, 11: 298-302. 10.1016/S0958-1669(00)00099-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Coffee genome sequencing. [http://www.coffeegenome.org/]
- Birch RG: Plant transformation: problems and strategies for practical application. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 0Plant Mol Bio. 1997, 48: 297-326. 10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.297.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Curtis MD, Grossniklaus U: A gateway cloning vector set for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Plant Physiol. 2003, 133 (2): 462-469. 10.1104/pp.103.027979.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leroy T, Henry AM, Royer M, Altosaar I, Frutos R, Duris D, Philippe R: Genetically modified coffee plants expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis cry 1Ac gene for resistance to leaf miner. Plant Cell Reports. 2000, 19 (4): 382-385. 10.1007/s002990050744.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ogita S, Uefuji H, Morimoto M, Sano H: Application of RNAi to confirm theobromine as the major intermediate for caffeine biosynthesis in coffee plants with potential for construction of decaffeinated varieties. Plant Mol Biol. 2004, 54 (6): 931-941. 10.1007/s11103-004-0393-x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hatanaka T, Choi YE, Kusano T, Sano H: Transgenic plants of coffee Coffea canephora from embryogenic callus via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Plant Cell Reports. 1999, 19 (2): 106-110. 10.1007/s002990050719.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ribas AF, Kobayashi AK, Pereira LFP, Vieira LGE: Production of herbicide-resistant coffee plants (Coffea canephora P.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2006, 49 (1): 11-19. 10.1590/S1516-89132006000100002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alpizar E, Dechamp E, Espeout S, Royer M, Lecouls AC, Nicole M, Bertrand B, Lashermes P, Etienne H: Efficient production of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots and composite plants for studying gene expression in coffee roots. Plant Cell Reports. 2006, 25 (9): 959-967. 10.1007/s00299-006-0159-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar V, Satyanarayana KV, Sarala Itty S, Indu EP, Giridhar P, Chandrashekar A, Ravishankar GA: Stable transformation and direct regeneration in Coffea canephora P ex. Fr. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation without hairy-root phenotype. Plant Cell Reports. 2006, 25 (3): 214-222. 10.1007/s00299-005-0045-x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Boxtel J, Berthouly M, Carasco C, Dufour M, Eskes A: Transient expression of B-glucuronidase following biolistic delivery of foreign DNA into coffee tissues. Plant Cell Reports. 1995, 14: 748-752.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ribas AF, Kobayashi AK, Pereira LFP, Vieira LGE: Genetic transformation of Coffea canephora by particle bombardment. Biologia Plantarum. 2005, 49 (4): 493-497. 10.1007/s10535-005-0038-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Etienne H, Lashermes P, Menéndez-Yuffá A, Guglielmo-Cróquer Z, Alpizar E, Sreenath H: Coffee. A Compendium of Transgenic Crop Plants. Edited by: Kole C, Hall TC. 2008, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 8: 57-84.Google Scholar
- Ribas AF, Pereira LFP, Vieira LGE: Genetic transformation of coffee. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2006, 18 (1): 83-94. 10.1590/S1677-04202006000100007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar V, Madhava Naidu M, Ravishankar GA: Developments in coffee biotechnology - in vitro plant propagation and crop improvement. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 2006, 87 (1): 49-65. 10.1007/s11240-006-9134-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Albuquerque EVS, Cunha WG, Barbosa AEAD, Costa PM, Teixeira JB, Vianna GR, Cabral GB, Fernandez D, Grossi-de-Sa MF: Transgenic coffee fruits from Coffea arabica genetically modified by bombardment. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant. 2009, 45 (5): 532-539. 10.1007/s11627-009-9254-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- da Câmara Machado A, Puschmann M, Pühringer H, Kremen R, Katinger H, Laimer de Câmara Machado M: Somatic embryogenesis of Prunus subhirtella autumno-rosa and regeneration of transgenic plants after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plant Cell Reports. 2009, 14: 335-340.Google Scholar
- Maghuly F, da Câmara Machado A, Leopold S, Khan MA, Katinger H, Laimer M: Long-term stability of marker gene expression in Prunus subhirtella: A model fruit tree species. Journal of Biotechnology. 2007, 127: 310-321. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.06.016.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dhekney SA, Li ZT, Zimmerman TW, Gray DJ: Factors influencing genetic transformation and plant regeneration of Vitis. American Journal for Enology and Viticulture. 2009, 60 (3): 285-292.Google Scholar
- Maghuly F, Leopold S, da Câmara Machado A, Borroto Fernandez E, Khan MA, Gambino G, Gribaudo I, Schartl A, Laimer M: Molecular characterization of grapevine plants transformed with GFLV resistance genes: II. Plant Cell Reports. 2006, 25: 546-553. 10.1007/s00299-005-0087-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blanc G, Baptiste C, Oliver G, Martin F, Montoro P: Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli and regeneration of Hevea brasiliensis Müll Arg. plants. Plant Cell Reports. 2006, 24 (12): 724-733. 10.1007/s00299-005-0023-3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andrade GM, Nairn CJ, Le HT, Merkle SA: Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation. Plant Cell Reports. 2009, 28 (9): 1385-1397. 10.1007/s00299-009-0738-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Etienne-Barry D, Bertrand B, Vasquez N, Etienne H: Direct sowing of Coffea arabica somatic embryos mass-produced in a bioreactor and regeneration of plants. Plant Cell Reports. 1999, 19: 111-117. 10.1007/s002990050720.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Etienne H, Bertrand B: The effect of the embryogenic cell suspension micropropagation technique on the trueness to type, field performance, bean biochemical content and cup quality of Coffea arabica trees. Tree Physiology. 2001, 21: 1031-1038.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Menéndez-Yuffá A, Barry-Etienne D, Bertrand B, Georget F, Etienne H: A comparative analysis of the development and quality of nursery plants derived from somatic embryogenesis and from seedlings for large-scale propagation of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 2010, 102: 297-307. 10.1007/s11240-010-9734-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Georget F, Bertrand B, Malo E, Montagon C, Alpizar E, Bobadilla R, Dechamp E, Jourdan I, Etienne H: An example of successful technology transfer in micropropagation: Multiplication of Coffea arabica by somatic embryogenesis. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Coffee Science (ASIC): 3-8 October 2010; Bali, Indonesia. Edited by: ASIC. 2010, Vevey, Switzerland, 496-506.Google Scholar
- Schwendiman J, Pannetier C, Michaux-Ferrière N: Histology of embryogenic formations during in vitro culture of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Oléagineux. 1990, 45: 409-418.Google Scholar
- Verdeil JL, Hocher V, Huet C, Grosdemange F, Escoute J, Ferrière N, Nicole M: Ultrastructural changes in coconut calli associated with the acquisition of embryogenic competence. Annals of Botany. 2001, 88: 9-18. 10.1006/anbo.2001.1408.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chevreau E: La transgenèse pour l'innovation variétale fruitière: état des lieux et perspectives. Innovations Agronomiques. 2009, 7: 153-163.Google Scholar
- Singh S, Rajam MV: Citrus biotechnology: achievements, limitations and future directions. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2009, 15: 1-22.Google Scholar
- Malnoy M, Korban S, Boreajza-Wisocka E, Alwinckle HC: Apple. Transgenic temperate fruits and nuts. Edited by: Kole C and Hall TC. 2008, Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 1-52.Google Scholar
- Bouquet A, Torregrossa L, Locco P, Thomas MR: Grape. Transgenic temperate fruits and nuts. Edited by: Kole C and Hall TC. 2008, Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 189-232.Google Scholar
- Franche C, Diouf D, Le QV, Bogusz D, N'Diaye A, Gherbi H, Gobé C, Duhoux E: Genetic transformation of the actinorhizal tree Allocasuarina verticillata by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Plant Journal. 1997, 11 (4): 897-904. 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.11040897.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cervera M, Pina JA, Juárez J, Navarro L, Peña L: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrange: factors affecting transformation and regeneration. Plant Cell Reports. 1998, 18: 271-278. 10.1007/s002990050570.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cseke LJ, Cseke SB, Podilla GK: High efficiency poplar transformation. Plant Cell Reports. 2007, 26: 1529-1538. 10.1007/s00299-007-0365-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dhekney SA, Li ZT, Dutt M, Gray DJ: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cultures and plant regeneration in Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape). Plant Cell Reports. 2008, 27: 865-872. 10.1007/s00299-008-0512-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dutt M, Grosser JW: An embryogenic suspension cell culture system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrus. Plant Cell Reports. 2010, 29: 1251-1260. 10.1007/s00299-010-0910-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gambino G, Gribaudo I, Leopold S, Schartl A, Laimer M: Molecular characterization of grapevine plants transformed with GFLV resistance genes: I. Plant Cell Reports. 2005, 24: 655-662. 10.1007/s00299-005-0006-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gambino G, Chitarra W, Maghuly F, Laimer M, Boccacci P, Torello Marinoni D, Gribaudo I: Characterization of T-DNA insertions in transgenic grapevines obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular Breeding. 2009, 24: 305-320. 10.1007/s11032-009-9293-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gambino G, Perrone I, Carra A, Chitarra W, Boccacci P, Torello Marinoni D, Barberis M, Maghuly F, Laimer M, Gribaudo I: Transgene silencing in grapevines transformed with GFLV resistance genes: analysis of variable expression of transgene, siRNAs production and cytosine methylation. Transgenic Research. 2010, 19: 17-27. 10.1007/s11248-009-9289-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Canche-Moo RLR, Ku-Gonzalez A, Burgeff C, Loyola-Vargas VM, Rodríguez-Zapata LC, Castaño E: Genetic transformation of Coffea canephora by vacuum infiltration. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 2006, 84 (3): 373-377. 10.1007/s11240-005-9036-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chalfie M, Tu Y, Euskirchen G, Ward WW, Prasher DC: Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression. Science (New York, NY). 1994, 263 (5148): 802-805. 10.1126/science.8303295.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leclercq J, Lardet L, Martin F, Chapuset T, Oliver G, Montoro P: The green fluorescent protein as an efficient selection marker for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation in Hevea brasiliensis (Müll. Arg). Plant Cell Reports. 2010, 29 (5): 513-522. 10.1007/s00299-010-0840-x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mishra MK, Sreenath H, Scrinivasan CS: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of coffee: An assessment of factors affecting gene transfer efficiency. Proceedings of the 15th Plantation Crops Symposium PLACROSYM XV: 10-13 December 2002; Mysore. 2002, 251-255.Google Scholar
- Romantschuk M: Attachment of plant pathogenic bacteria to plant surfaces. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 1992, 30 (1): 225-243. 10.1146/annurev.py.30.090192.001301.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Montoro P, Teinseree N, Rattana W, Kongsawadworakul P, Michaux-Ferrière N: Effect of exogenous calcium on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) friable calli. Plant Cell Reports. 2000, 19 (9): 851-855. 10.1007/s002990000208.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng M, Fry JE, Pang S, Zhou H, Hironaka CM, Duncan DR, Conner TW, Wan Y: Genetic transformation of wheat mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Physiol. 1997, 115 (3): 971-980.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Azadi P, Chin DP, Kuroda K, Khan RS, Mii M: Macro elements in inoculation and co-cultivation medium strongly affect the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Lilium. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 2010, 101 (2): 201-209. 10.1007/s11240-010-9677-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Geyt JPC, Jacobs M: Suspension culture of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) induction and habituation of dedifferentiated and self regenerating cell lines. Plant Cell Reports. 1985, 4: 66-69. 10.1007/BF00269208.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meins F, Foster R: Reversible, cell-heritable changes during the developement of tobacco pith tissues. Dev Biol. 1985, 108: 1-5. 10.1016/0012-1606(85)90002-8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ara H, Jaiswal U, Jaiswal V: Mango (Mangifera indica L.). Protocols for somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Edited by: Jain SM, Gupta PK. 2005, The Netherlands: Springer, 77: 229-256. 10.1007/1-4020-2985-3_18.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ford CS, Fischer LJ, Jones SA, Nigro S, Makunga NP, van Staden J: Somatic embryogenesis in Pinus patula. Protocols for somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Edited by: Jain SM, Gupta PK. 2005, The Netherlands: Springer, 77: 121-139. 10.1007/1-4020-2985-3_11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tang W, Newton RJ: Transgenic christmas trees regenerated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of zygotic embryos using the green fluorescence protein as a reporter. Mol Breeding. 2005, 16 (3): 235-246. 10.1007/s11032-005-8358-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tremblay FM, Iraqi D, El Meskaoui A: Protocol of somatic embryogenesis: black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). Protocols for somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Edited by: Jain SM, Gupta PK. 2005, The Netherlands: Springer, 77: 59-68. 10.1007/1-4020-2985-3_6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jain S: An updated overview of advances in somatic embryogenesis in forest trees. Plantation technology in tropical forest science. Edited by: Suzuki K, Ishii K, Sakurai S, Sasaki S. 2006, Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag, 113-122.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu SJ, Wang HH, Li FF, Chen TZ, Zhang J, Jiang YJ, Ding Y, Guo WZ, Zhang TZ: Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli of upland cotton via efficient selection and timely subculture of somatic embryos. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 2008, 26 (3): 174-185. 10.1007/s11105-008-0032-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Halperin W: Alternative morphogenetic events in cell suspensions. Am J Bot. 1966, 53: 443-453. 10.2307/2440343.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Merkle SA, Parrott WA, Flinn BS: Morphogenic aspects of somatic embryogenesis. In vitro embryogenesis in plants. Edited by: Thorpe TA. 1995, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 155-203.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pierik RLM: In vitro culture of higher plant. 1997, Boston: Kluver academic publisherGoogle Scholar
- Ibaraki Y, Kurata K: Automation of somatic embryo production. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 2001, 65: 179-199. 10.1023/A:1010636525315.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mauro MC, Toutain S, Walter B, Pinck L, Otten L, Coutos-Thevenot P, Deloire A, Barbier P: High efficiency regeneration of grapevine plants transformed with the GFLV coat protein gene. Plant Sci. 1995, 112: 97-106. 10.1016/0168-9452(95)04246-Q.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cruz-Hernandez A, Witjaksono , Litz RE, Gomez Lim M: Agrobacterium tumefaciens - mediated transformation of embryogenic avocado cultures and regeneration of somatic embryos. Plant Cell Reports. 1998, 17 (6): 497-503. 10.1007/s002990050431.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sangwan RS, Bourgeois Y, Brown S, Vasseur G, Sangwan-Norreel B: Characterization of competent cells and early events of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 1992, 188: 439-456.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Söndahl MR, Spahlinger D, Sharp WR: A histological study of high frequency and low frequency induction of somatic embryos in cultured leaf explants of Coffea arabica L. Z Pflanzenphysiol. 1979, 94: 101-108.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Find JI, Charity JA, Grace LJ, Kritensen MMMH, Krogstrup P, Walter C: Stable genetic transformation of embryogenic cultures of Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann fir.) and regeneration of transgenic plants. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant. 2005, 41: 725-730. 10.1079/IVP2005704.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hansen G, Wright MS: Recent advances in the transformation of plants. Trends Plant Sci. 1999, 4: 226-232. 10.1016/S1360-1385(99)01412-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Prols F, Meyer P: The methylation pattern of chromosomal integration region influence gene activity of transferred DNA in petunia. Plant J. 1992, 2: 165-175.Google Scholar
- Tingay S, McElroy D, Kalla R, Fleg S, Wang M, Thornton S, Brettell RIS: Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated barley transformation. Plant J. 1997, 11: 1369-1376. 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.11061369.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Flavell RB: Inactivation of gene expression in plants as a consequence of specific sequence duplication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994, 91: 3490-3496. 10.1073/pnas.91.9.3490.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Etienne H: Protocol of somatic embryogenesis: Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and C. canephora P.). Protocols for somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Edited by: Springer. 2005, the Netherlands: Jain SM and Gupta PK, 77: 167-179. 10.1007/1-4020-2985-3_14.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Murashige T, Skoog F: A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant. 1962, 15 (3): 473-497. 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fisher D: Protein staining of ribboned open sections for light microscopy. Histochimie. 1968, 16: 92-96. 10.1007/BF00306214.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Buffard-Morel J, Verdeil JL, Pannetier C: Somatic embryogenesis of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) from leaf explants: histological study. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1992, 70: 735-741. 10.1139/b92-094.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Doyle JJ, Doyle JLA: A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin. 1987, 19: 11-15.Google Scholar
- Noir S, Patheyron S, Combes MC, Lashermes P, Chalhoub B: Construction and characterisation of a BAC library for genome analysis of the allotetraploid coffee species (Coffea arabica L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2004, 109 (1): 225-230. 10.1007/s00122-004-1604-1.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.